sensation and perception study guide

  1. sensation
    stimulation of our sense organs by the outer world
  2. perception
    act of organizing and interpreting sensory experience. how our psychological world represents our physical world
  3. sensory adaption
    our diminished sensitivity to a constant stimulation. it ensures that we notice changes in stimulation more than stimulation tiself
  4. transduction
    conversion of physical into neural information (sense organs convert physical stimulus into action potentials)
  5. psychophysics
    study of how people psychologically perceive physical stimuli such as light and sound waves and touch
  6. absolute threshold
    lowest intensity level of a stimulus we can detect HALF of the time
  7. decision-making process of the person in a particular context
    detecting sensations is not only matter of intensity of the stimulus but also the ____
  8. signal detection theory
    takes into account both stimulus intensity and the decsion-making processes people use when saying whether they detect a stimulus
  9. four outcomes of signal detection theory:
    hit (correctly detecting a stimulus) miss (failing) false alarm (stimulus exists when it does not) correct rejection (not reporting a stimulus that is not there)
  10. Difference threshold
    JND (smallest amount of change b/w two stimuli that a person can detect HALF of the time)
  11. Weber's law
    size of the JND is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus (EX: 3% for weight perception)
  12. perceptual set
    our frame of mind can impact how we perceive things (mood, health, knowledge of how the world works, cultural upbringing) think of that deer and the elephant of the navahoooooooooes
  13. retina; simple and complex cells; hypercomplex cells; complex cells
    we perceive movement when an image moves across the ___. ___ respond to either the orientation of direction of moving image. ___ respond to certain patterns of ____.
  14. factors that contribute to how we perceive movement:
    • -background against which an object moves (object moves faster across a complex background)
    • -size of the object (smaller objects appear to move faster)
    • - illusion (thinking something is moving when it is not)
  15. apparent motion
    brains interpret images that move across our retinas as movement (when shit ain't moving)
  16. real movement neurosn
    responding only when the image itself moves and not when the eye itself moves (this is one way the brain can determine the difference b/w real and false movement)

  17. Depth perception
    allows for the discrimination b/w what is near and far from us
  18. binocular depth cues; binocular disparity
    • 1. rely on input from BOTH EYES
    • 2. comes from the fact that the eyes are separated by a few inches, so the image from each eye will provide slightly different viewpoints
  19. convergence
    occurs when the eyes move inward as an object moves closer to you (muscles that move the eyeball contract and the brain makes use of the feedback from these muscles to perceive distance. This is the most effective as a depth cue for stimuli that are within 10 feet of us)
  20. monocular depth cues
    rely on input from ONE EYE
  21. linear perspective
    • parallel lines that converge or come together the further away they are from the viewer (more they converge, the greater distance we perceive)
    • EX: train tracks
  22. texture gradient
    texture of a surface becomes more tightly packed together and denser as the surface moves to the background. These changes in textural information help use judge depth
  23. atmospheric perspective
    comes from looking across a vast space into the distance in the outdoors. Objects farther away appear more blurred and bluish
  24. interposition
    objects closer to the viewer often overlap with those farther away
  25. ponzo illusion
    judging an object's size based on the background (EX: moon illusion)
  26. perceptual constancy
    ability of the brain to preserve perception of objects in spite of the change in retinal image is known as..
  27. size constancy
    we see things as the same size regardless of the changing size of the image on the retina because we KNOW what the size of the object is (Ames room)
  28. shape constancy
    brain uses its knowledge of shapes to override changing retinal images that might make the world very confusing
  29. gestalt psychologists (Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Kohler)
    ___ recognized we see shit wholes as more than merely the sum of their parts
  30. law of similarity
    tendency to group like objects teogeht
  31. law of continuity
    tendency to see pts or lines in such a way that they follow a continuous path
  32. law of proximity
    says that we tend to group together objects that are near one another
  33. law of closure
    occurs when we perceive a whole object in the absense of complete information
  34. figure vs ground
    • figure is the thing that stands in front of a somewhat unformed background (EX: the ground)
    • think: face vase
  35. bottom-up processing
    process of building a visual experience from smaller peices
  36. top-down processing
    occurs when the perception of the whole guides perception of smaller elemental features
  37. stroop effect
    naming the color of the word takes longer and is more prone to errors than when the color of the ink matches the name of the color
  38. triochromatic color theory
    there are three kinds of cones: red, green, and blue (all color we experience must result from a mixing of these three colors of light)
  39. human retina and kinds of receptor cones
    • red cones: fire in response to longer wavelength light
    • green cones: fire in response to medium wavelength light
    • blue cones: fire in response to shorter wavelength light

    Different patterns of firing combine to help create our experience of a wide array of colors
  40. opponent processed theory
    cones are lined together in three opposing color pairs, whereby activation of one member of the pair inhibits activity in the other
  41. blue/yellow; red/green; black/white
    what are hte opposing color pairs
  42. afterimages
    visual images that remains after removal of the stimulus (helps to explain some types of color blindness and why we never experience some colors)
  43. red/green
    fun fact: most popular colorblindness (colorblindlesss results from inherited pigment deficiency and occurs in men/boys)
  44. sound; light waves
    ____ travel much slower than ____
  45. amplitude
    • what we perceive as loudness (taller= louder)
    • scale is in decibels
  46. frequency
    how many waves occur (hertz)
  47. purity
    complexity of the waves
  48. bodily senses
    senses based in the skin, body or any membrane surfaces (touch, pain, motion, balance)
  49. interoception
    perception of bodily sesnations
  50. receptor cells-mechanoreceptors- that are sensitive to different tactile qualities (some to shape, some to grooves, some to vibrations and movements)
    what do top layers of skin have?
  51. tactile sensations from skin travel to spinal cord and up to brain; then goes to thalamus which relays impulse to somatosensory cortex in parietal lobes
    process of touch
  52. amount of cortex involved in processing that particular sensation or movement
    repeated sensory and motor tactile experiences changes
  53. phantom limb pain
    experience of pain in limb or tissue that is missing
  54. nociceptive pain
    pain from skin damage (skin has pain receptors that are sensitive to heat, cold, chemical irritation, and pressure)

    fun fact: spinal cord may actually play an active rather than passive role in pain perception
  55. glial cells wrapped around axons
    spinal cord relays enhances the pain messages from the sensory neurons to the brain (what does this)
  56. ACC (anterior cingulate cortex and insula)
    brain regions active in both physical and emotional pain
  57. gate control theory of pain
    spinal cord regulates the expeirence pain by either opening or closing neural channels called gates, involved in pain sensations that get sent to brain
  58. large neural channels
    invovled in non-pain sensations (can inhibit or close pain impulses sent to the brain)
  59. eudorphins
    natural painkillers (when we are injured they are released)
  60. opinoids
    severe pain (class of drug known as analgesics)-morphine, heroin, oxycodone
  61. smell and taste
    the chemical sensessss
  62. how are they different from other senses?
    receptors are regularly replaced every few weeks because of thier constnat exposure to dirt and bacteria that can impair function
  63. cilia
    olfactory sensory neurons contain theses, similar to the hair cells in the inner ear (convert chemical info in odor moelcules to neural impulses)
  64. chemicals come in contact with cilia, transduction, olfactory message travels to olfactory bulb in forebrain
    process for smell
  65. primary olfactory cortex/ secondary olfactory cortex
    resdies in temproal lobe; frontal lobe near the eyes
  66. some fibers from the olfactory bulb go directly to the amygdala, which sends smell information to the hypothalamus, thalamus, and frontal cortex
    why can connections explain why smells can instantly evoke an emotional memoery?
  67. papillae
    textured structures on the tongue (contain about 10,000 taste buds)

    cells on the buds htat process taste information are called taste cells
  68. chemicals come in contact with the tips of taste buds; they alter membrane of taste cells in ways that make them more likely to generate action potentials; signals travel down to fibers to the brain stem; travels to thalamus and frontal lobe; neurons go to taste cortex in the insula and other regions of the frontal-parietal cortex
    process of taste?
  69. flavor
  70. rorbitofrontal cortex (OFC)
    region of the brain most involved in flavor perception (receives inputs from brain areas involved in olfactory and taste as well as touch and vision perception areas
  71. lens; focus on things
    what did ciliary muscles help move? purpose?
  72. pinnae, auditory cortex, tympanic membrane
    outer ear
  73. hammer (malleus); anvil (incus); stirrup (stapes)
    middle ear (amplify the waves and set into motion a series of changes in the inner ear)
  74. chochlea (snail)
    inner ear
  75. semicircular canals
    plays a key role in balance
  76. hair cells
    within the cochlea are ___ which are sensory receptors (photoreceptors in eye)
  77. vibrations move through the choclear fluid, basilar membrane vibrates, and hair cells bend; hair cells transduce sound vibrations into electrical impulses, which generate an action potential in the auditory nerve
    process of hearing
  78. brain stem, temporal lobe (home of auditory cortex)
    neural impulses of hearing are relayed to these parts of the brain
  79. 1. conduction hearing impairment 2. nerve and hearing impairment
    • 1.problems with the mechanical system that transmits sound waves to the cochlea
    • 2. damageed inner ear receptors
  80. highest concentration of cones
  81. nerve and hear
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sensation and perception study guide