form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space.
distance between 2 identical parts of a wave
how fast wave oscillates up and down
includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation
EM radiation (RMIVUXG)
-radio (lowest energy)
-gamma (highest) (cosmic rays)
less energy, longer freq.
more energy, shorter freq.
energy increases with increasing frequency
the quantum concept; light comes from little bundles of energy called quantum
minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom
photoelectric effect; proposed that EM radiation has both wavelike and particle like natures
electrons that are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface
a particle of EM radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy
states that an electron must be in an energy level, not in-between
-came up with 7 energy levels
-each successive energy level gets closer together.
de Broglie relation
predicts all moving particles have wave-like characteristics
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
It is impossible to make a measurement on an object without disturbing the object in some way, especially if the object is very small.
The aufbau principle
electrons start at lowest possible energy level
Electrons in Atoms