Pharmacology Microbials

  1. 2 methods of resistance
    altering the outer cell wall so the antibiotic cannot penetrate the bacteria and the production of enzymes that inactivate the antibiotic
  2. acid
    fast staining principle
    • identifies
    • Mycobacterium bacterial that causes TB
  3. aminoglycosides
    streptomycin, gentamycin, tobramycin
  4. antituberculin drugs
    isoniazid (INH), rifampin, streptomycin, ethambutol, chemoprophylaxis
  5. bacterial resistance
    ability of a bacteria to resist the actions of antibiotics
  6. basic principle of gram staining
    small amount of specimen placed in culture medium allowing it to grow 24-48 hours after which the bacteria are placed on a glass slide and prepared for staining with crystal violet and safranin. bacteria that retain only crystal violet will be blue and are positive while those that retain safranin are pink and this negative
  7. cephalosporin agents
    duricef, keflex, ceclor, suprax, rocephin, and maxipine
  8. drug given as a chemoprophylaxic drug for TB and how long is administered
    isoniazid (INH), 18-24 months
  9. drug that treats MRSA
  10. drugs effective against B-lactamase
    methacillin, oxacillin, and nefcillin
  11. effectiveness of primaxin
    effective against 90% of all clinically significant bacteria
  12. furoquinolones
    cipro and levoquin
  13. guidelines for effective antibiotic therapy
    1 ID organism 2) select effective drugs to treat organism 3) obtain sample before treament begins 4) use correct dosage 5) avoid trivial and promiscuous use to avoid development of resistance
  14. main uses of cephalosporins
    penicillin substitute and treatment of certain gram - infections
  15. marcolides
    erythromycin, biaxin, zithromax
  16. most common indication for aerosolized antibiotics
    patient has not responded well to systemic administration
  17. MRSA
    methacillin resistant staphylococcus aurous
  18. Pentamidine trade name
    Pentam 300 or Nebupent
  19. process and purpose for culture and sensitivity
    culturing the specimen then testing drugs on it to see what it is sensitive to; this will test to see what drugs are effective against what bacteria
  20. ribavirin RoA
    through a SPAG unit (small particle aerosol generator)
  21. ribavirin adverse effects
    sudden worsening of respiratory function, bronchospasms, pulmonary bacterial pneumonia, hypotension
  22. ribavirin dose
    600mg pwder in 300mL sterile water 12-18 hrs/day for 3-7 days
  23. ribavirin indication
    treatment of RSV (infants and young children)
  24. ribavirin method of delivery
    aerosolized through an oxygen hood
  25. ribavirin occupational hazards
    can cause birth defects, eye irritation, headache, throat irritation, pharyngitis, nausea, dizziness, fatigue bronchospasms, and nasal congestion
  26. ribavirin precautions
    be careful with vent patients because the meds can stick to the cent parts and interfere with proper functioning, room should be subatmospheric, wear gwn, mask, gloves, and eye protection, and do not administer is pregnant
  27. ribavirin trade name
  28. tetracyclines
  29. the 3 basic shapes of bacteria and basic arrangements
    cocci (sphere), bacilli (rod), spirilla (curved rod), diplo pairs, strepto chains, staphylo clusters
  30. the broad-spectrum penicillin
    amoxicillin and ampicillin
  31. What 2 penicillins affect gram + bacteria
    penicillin g and v
  32. when are aminoglycosides usually used
    for gram - infections like ecoli and pseudomonos
  33. why are aminoglycosides not used more often
    can cause renal toxicity and deafness
  34. why primaxin is not used often
    too expensive @ 90/dose and 3600/10 day supply
  35. Pentamidine indication
    treatment or prevention of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS
  36. Pentamidine RoA
  37. Pentamidine method of delivery
    administered in a room equipped with a negative pressure ventilation system or other scavenger systems such as treatment booths
  38. Pentamidine dose
    prophylaxis - 300mg once every 4 weeks via Respirgar II nebulizer or other filtered nebulizer system

    treament - 600mg once daily for 21 days via Respirgar II nebulizer or other filtered nebulizer system

    supplied in a 300mg powder that is reconstituted in 6mL of sterile water
  39. Pentamidine adverse effects
    bronchospasm, fatigue, sever cough, unpleasant taste, and burning sensation at the back of the throat
  40. Pentamidine occupational hazard
    birth defects
  41. Pentamidine precautions
    wear gloves gown mask and goggles during administration
  42. antimicrobial
    drugs that kill or inhibit the growth of any microorganism
  43. pathogenic
    bacteria that cause disease
  44. antibiotic susceptibility
    ID of the antibiotics that are effective against specific bacteris
  45. culturs and sensitivity
    bacterial ID and determination of antibiotic susceptibility
  46. antibacterial spectrum
    each antibacterial drug is generally effective for only a limited number or pathogenic bacteria and these suspeptible bacteria make up the AS
  47. broad-spectrum
    drugs that are ffective against a wide spectrum of both gram - and + bacteria
  48. bacterial resistance
    the ability of a bacteria to resist the actions of antibiotics
  49. B-Lactamase
    the enzyme which will inactivate penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics
  50. penicillinase
    B-lactamases that inactivate penicillin
  51. bacteriostatic
    inhibits or retards the growth of bacteria allowing normal defense mechanisms to take over
  52. bacteriocidal
    actually killing the bacteria
Card Set
Pharmacology Microbials
for Lesha Hill's Pharmacology for Respiratory Therapy