Fish gills are the _____ effective respiratory devices in the animal kingdom.
The evolution of the swim bladder in fish is important because it allows a fish to achieve ______ ________ and remain _________ indefinitely at any depth
- neutral buoyancy
A fish can identify an approaching predator with _______ ______, which are a set of small ______ that allow fish to hear _________________. Reception of the sound begins at the ____ _______ and transmitted to the ____ ____ by ossicles.
- Weberian ossicles
- faint sounds over a broad range
- swim bladder
- inner ear
A fish's ____-chambered heart is composed of the _________ and the ________
Fish belong to the phylum ________
Identify examples of each class:
- Sharks, rays, skates
- tuna, perch
How do hagfish feed? What kind of feeders are they?
Hagfish are bottom dwelling scavengers. They use their rasping tongue (tongue with teeth), ties itself in a know, and rips food off using its tongue.
How do lampreys feed? What kind of feeders are they?
They have round mouths with a rasping tongue. Lampreys attach to the live fish and uses the tongue to penetrate the skin, ingesting blood. They are predators and parasites.
Osteichtyes = _____ fish
Difference between lampreys and hagfish in development?
Lampreys live for years as suspension feeding larvae (resembles lancelets) before becoming an adult. Hagfish have direct development.
Sharks can detect prey from a kilometer away with _______ organs. _________ in the lateral line system (which is composed of receptor organs called ____) can sense low frequency vibrations.
Sharks can find prey by their bioelectric field by using electroreceptors called?
ampullae of Lorenzini
____________ = mother retains the fertilized egg inside oviduct and eggs hatch inside
_________ = young develop within the uterus and is nourished by mother's blood through the placenta.
_______ = eggs are laid and hatched outside the mother
What are the zigzag muscle bands found in the perch? "W"
Tunas are bony fish but they don't have a _____ _______
______ fish have swim bladders. When the fish swims up, the bladder _____, and displaces additional water by a volume of the gas in the bladder, adjusting their ____. If a fish swims ______, the greater pressure exerted by the water _____ the gas in the swim bladder.
The ________ ______ connects the swim bladder to the esophagus
What is countercurrent flow? What does this allow? Some bony fish can remove as much as ____% of the dissolved O2 from water passing over the gills.
Water flow is opposite the direction of blood flow. It allows greater extraction of O2 from water. 85
What are the 3 distinct groups of bony fish? (Osteichtyes)
ray finned, lobe finned, lung fish
How do hagfish protect themselves?
They secrete a water-absorbing goo to form liters of slime in less than a minute. The slime could suffocate a predator.
Lampreys are _____ and ______, while hagfish are ALL _____.
Lampreys have _ pairs of gills while Hagfish have __ to ____ gills.
Lampreys and hagfish do not have a ____, but they do have a ____.
Instead of swim bladders, sharks have a huge ____, which contains ____.
Sharks do not have an ________ that covers their gills.
What is the function of the spleen in sharks?
creates red blood cells
Besides the liver, what else must sharks do to maintain buoyancy?
A fish has ____ ______ blood flow.
_____ - > _______ -> ______ -> ______ -> ______ --> _______
- single circuit
- ventricle -> artery -> gill -> systemic -> vein -> atrium
O2 rich water enters through the ____ and passes back to the ____, then travels to the _____.
How many gill arches do perches have?
The____ _____ in sharks slows the passage of food, increases surface area for absorption.
Cartilaginous fish have _____ endoskeletons, but they have ____ teeth.
Paired pectoral and pelvic fins provide ____
The heterocercal tail is in ___, while the homocercal tail is found in ___.
What is the largest fish? What kind of feeder is it?
whale shark. suspension feeder
What is the most primitive early fish?
_______ scales in perches are covered with a thin _____, which secretes mucus over the scales to reduce ____ when swimming, and makes capture ____.
Rectal gland function in sharks?
Excretes salt to help maintain osmotic balance
What are the function of the gill rakers?
They increase the surface area of gills, which allow for more efficient respiration
What lines the coelom? What covers the organs?
- Visceral peritoneum