Chem 111 Chp 7

  1. Pauli's Exception
    There can be 0, 1, or 2 electrons in an orbital. If there are two electrons in a single orbital they will have opposite spins.
  2. Hund's Rule
    Every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.
  3. Ionization Energy, IE
    The minimal amount of energy necessary to remove an electron from the neutral gaseous atom. Endothermic. Decreases the size of the atom. Decreases as you move down the families, increases as you move left to right.
  4. Electron Affinity, EA
    A measure of the energy change when an electron is added to a neutral gaseous atom. Exothermic. Makes atoms larger. Decreases as you move down families, increases as you move left to right.
  5. Atomic Size
    Affected by the effective nuclear charge of an atom. Increases in size as you move down the table, decreases as you move left to right.
  6. Effective Nuclear Charge, ENC
    (# of protons in the nucleus) + (# of shielding e-)
  7. Paramagnetic Material
    Has unpaired electrons
  8. Diamagnetic Material
    No unpaired electrons.
  9. Quantum Numbers.
    How many?
    What are they?
    What to they stand for?
    • 4: n, l, m, s
    • n, principal: relative distance of the e- from the nucleus (1, Infinity - 1)
    • l, secondary: shape and type of orbital (0, n-1)
    • m, magnetic: Orientation of the orbital (-L, +L)
    • s, spin: Spin of the electron (+/- 1/2)
  10. S-Orbital Shape and l value
    • Sphere
    • l = 0
  11. P orbital: Shape, l value and how many in an energy state

    l = 1

    3 to an energy state
  12. D orbital Shape, l value and how many in an energy state
    • Spiky
    • l = 2
    • 5 to an energy state
  13. Bohr
    Developed the first modern model of the atom. Thought electrons circled the nucleus like planets around the sun.
  14. Heisenberg
    Demolished Bohr's model by stating we can't know where and how fast an electron is and that the act of observing changes the outcome.
  15. DeBroglie
    Duality of nature: an electron acts as both a wave and a particle
  16. Schrodinger
    Wrote the formula to find the probable spot an electron could be. The formula gives us quantum numbers which tell us which orbital certain electrons will probably be in.
  17. Rydberg
    Wrote equation to determine energy released by an electron falling towards the nucleus.
  18. Chromium and Copper Exception
    Take an electron from the 4s orbital and move it into the 3d orbital.
Card Set
Chem 111 Chp 7
Chemistry 111 Chapter 7