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- The way in which light travels through space. Made up of successive crests and troughs. Three primary characteristics.
- 1. amplitude
- 2. wavelenth
- 3. Frequency
Represented by lambda(λ), it is the distance in nanometers or meters between two successive crests or troughs
Represented by nu(ν), it is the number of successive crests or troughs that pass a given point in a given unit time. the measure Hertz(hz) that represents one cycle per second.
Energy released as waves on the electromagnetic spectrum with both magnetic and electic fields and properties
The entire continuous spectrum of electromagnetic radiation from gamma rays to long radio waves.
The characteristic spectrum of electomagnetic energy given off by each element with specific wavelenths.
a stream of particles that we consider light to be generated as whose energy is given in joules
Groups of numbers that represent states of sublevels of atoms.
First Quantum Number
- represented by n;
- These are the principle energy levels.
- n can only be integral values starting with 1.
- n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...
- n = 1 is considered the principal energy level and n = 2 the second primary energy level.
- As n increases so does evergy of the elecron
Second Quantum Number
- Represented by l.
- l can take any integral value and starting with 1 and ending with (n-1).
- l = 0, 1, 2, ... , (n-1)
- in general in the nth energy level there are n different sublevels.
- the ublevels are represented by letters associated with values.
- 0 = s
- 1 = p
- 2 = d
- 3 = f
Third Quantum Number
represented by ml this shows the direction in space of the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus.
- This number is the value of any integral number between l and -l, including 0.
- for example for l = 1, ml could = -1,0,1
Fourth Quantum Number
This is associated with electron spin and represented by ms.
Has nothing to do with the other quantum numbers and can only be two values. -1/2 or 1/2
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Ir requires that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers.