1. Economic geography, what is it the study of? Name three.
    • 1) How people earn their living
    • 2) How their livelihood systems vary by area
    • 3) How economic activities are spatially interlinked
  2. Economic activities are embedded in a variety of contexts. Name 5.
    • 1) Physical envrionment (e.g. resources) - in Ethiopia it's easier to import from U.S. than neighboring country because of terrain
    • 2) Culture (e.g. food preferences and taboos) - Muslims don't eat pork so pork places wouldn't be successful there
    • 3) Technological development - how a chess set is made here in the U.S. vs some where else? --very different
    • 4) Political decisions (e.g. subsidies - certain states get govt support, tariffs)
    • 5) Economic factors (e.g. demand)
  3. Classification of economic activities. Name 5.
    • 1) Primary activities
    • 2) Secondary activities
    • 3) Tertary activities
    • 4) Quarternary activities
    • 5) Quinary activities
  4. 1) Primary activites is....
    • Harvesting or extracting raw minerals from the earth (agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining)
    • -the highest percentage of agriculture labor force is in Africa, Asia & Afghanistan
  5. 2) Secondary activities is....
    • Transformation of raw materials
    • -manufacturing and processing (ex. car production) -- happens in more developed countries
    • -production of energy
    • -construction
  6. 3) Tertiary activities is....
    • Selling products and providing services to individuals and businesses (medical, Bestbuy, technological, financial services - bank, barber, etc)
    • -personal service (hair dresser)
    • -Finance, Insurance, Real Estate (FIRE)
    • -service is mostly in developed countries, one of the leading places for this is Luxemburg at 90%
  7. 4) Quarternary activities is....
    Research and development; processing and disseminating info (ex. teacher)
  8. 5) Quinary activities is....
    High-level decision making
  9. Types of economic systems. Name 3 and explain.
    • 1) Subsistence: production for the family unit, little exchange of goods... just enough for family
    • 2) Commercial: market production led by supply and demand -- more demand, higher price
    • 3) Planned economy: govt determines what is produced, where and how - less than 20 exist (ex. N. Korea & Cuba)

    There is some overlap between these systems! (ex: energy, military... there's some govt involvement)
  10. The industrial revolution (started in Britain - Europe)
    • The industrial revolution was not really a revolution, but a SERIES of small improvements to existing technologies (e.g. flying shuttle, spinning jenny) -weaving / making yarn
    • The population explosion and agricultural changes contributed as much to the industrial revolution as technological innovations.
  11. Geographic Disparities
    • The industrial revolution started in places with abundant coal deposits
    • The diffusion is determined by the availiability of natural resources and the distance from core area (distance-decay)
    • Only certain regions w/in countries industrialized
  12. Industrialization in the U.S.
    • Until 1775 manufacturing was forbidden in N. America - bc Europe wanted all profits and by letting N. America manufacture that would make N. America not dependent on Europe anymore
    • British industries were not transplanted after independence; rather independent innovations were made (e.g. cotton gin)
    • Heavy dependence on water power during early industrialization (Long, Massachussetts was one of the very first operating)
  13. Traditional Industrial Regions
    • Manufacturing Belt (US)
    • Western Europe (British midlands to German Ruhr)
    • Donetsk Basin (Ukraine)

    -the "belt" was more located in areas that were mid-latitude
  14. Recently developed industrial regions
    • China (now the "power house")
    • -rich resource base
    • -cheap labor
    • -creation of special economic zones (e.g. Guangdong - which offers companies great incentives for bringing their work there: cheap land, low tariffs...etc)
    • The 4 Tigers: Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan & Singapore
    • Mexico and Brazil
  15. Export-led Development
    • Export processing zones
    • -reduction or elimination of tariffs
    • -low taxes
    • -subsidized rents & energy
    • Maquiladoras
  16. Transnational Corporation (TNCs)
    • TNCs partiicpate in production manufacturing and sales in several countries
    • TNCs existed since the 19th century but their # has increased dramatically since the 1970s
    • In economic terms, some of these firms are more powerful than most sovereign nations
  17. Fordism/Post-Fordism
    • Fordism has been replaced by flexible production systems
    • -Just in time production (JIT)
    • -Use of outside consultants, specialists and su contractors
    • -Strategic alliances
  18. Transportation
    • Relatively inflexible means of transportation
    • -Water (canals/rivers)
    • ...low operating costs and rarely right of way fees
    • for bulky goods that have to be transported over long distance -->coals, iron ore, etc.
    • -railroads: large volumes can be moved quickly but high construction and maintenance costs
    • -pipelines: efficient, speedy and reliable, but high investment costs
    • ...inflexible means of transportation
    • -roads: great flexibility and quick response times to changes in industrial location, but high cost and low efficiency
    • -air_ only used for small, high-volumen items and some perishable items

    • Containters crucial to all modes of transportation
    • -ships, railroads, trucks
    • -allowed for expansion of ports inward (storage sites)
  19. Industrial location theories
    • Basic assumptions:
    • -people make rational decisions
    • -the main interest is to maximize profits
    • -prices are a function of supply and demand
    • -cost is the driving forces
  20. Cost
    • some costs are independent from where the industry is located ---> wages set by national contracts
    • -other costs are spatially variable --> ex: wages, energy, transporation
  21. Cost & location
    • Raw material intensive industries (primary):
    • ..inputs are bulky and have less weight after processing -->ex: paper industry
    • -location close to the source of raw materials
    • -need for multiple raw materials results in an intermediate location --> ex: steel mills at Gary, IN

    • Labor intesive industries (secondary):
    • tend to locate close to available pools of cheap labor -->ex: extiles

    • Goods that gin weight in processing
    • -production close to the marktes -->ex: soft drinks
  22. Weber's least cost theory
    • Assumptions:
    • -Area is completely uniform
    • -One product shipped to one market
    • -Raw materials from more than one source
    • -Labor is unlimited, but immobile (relastic)
    • -Transportation is efficient
    • -Locational triangle
  23. Other locational theories (3)
    Profit maximization - location is determined by the area of highest net profit

    • Locational Interdependence - decision is influenced by the location of conpetitors
    • -ex: selling ice cream on beach - 2 vendors

    Comparative Advantage - areas specialize in products for which they have greates relative advantage over other areas
  24. Development
    • Definitions of development:
    • Economic growth, modernization, increasing production and consumption
    • Extent to which resources are put to productive use
    • Changes in social, cultural and political structures
  25. Classification systems (5)
    • 1) First, Second and Third Worlds
    • 2) Global North and South
    • 3) Level of Development
    • 4) Core & Periphery
    • 5) World Bank Classification
  26. 1) First, Second and Third Worlds
    • First world: industrialized capitalist countries (US, Canada, Europe, Australia)
    • 2nd world: countires w/command economies (China & Russia)
    • 3rd world: all other countries (Mexico, S. America, Africa...etc)

    • Concept was more applicable to the Cold War
    • situation

    Meaning of 3rd world changed over time to mean "underdeveloped"
  27. 2) Global North and South
    • Imprecise
    • Several exceptions (e.g. Australia)
  28. 3) Level of Development
    • Developed countries: high levels of urbanization, industrialization and standard of living
    • Developing countries: newly industrializing countries (Brazil, India, Russia, China, Mexico)
    • Underdeveloped or less developed countries
    • Assumes that countries want to follow a western path of development
  29. 4) Core and Periphery
    • Core: prosperous, dominant in global economy (N. America, Europe)
    • Semi-periphery: some autonomy (Brazil, Russia and China)
    • Periphery: dependent on core (Africa and Mid-East)

    • Concept makes power relationships between countries explicit
    • Can be applied to different spatial scales
  30. 5) World Bank Classification
    • High income
    • Upper income and lower-middle income
    • Low income
  31. The distinction between more and less developed countires becomes increasingly blurred:
    • In recent years, S. Korea has achieved a decent income, good life expectancy and low infant mortality rate
    • Russia has advanced space technology, but has a low income, decreasing life expectancy and fairly high IMR
    • The UAE has a high income, but has made little progress w/education and gender equality
  32. Economic Measures or Development
    • GNP or GDP total value of goods and services per year (average #)
    • -excludes informal economy (baby-sitting)
    • -ignores disparities w/in countries
    • -ignores environmental costs of development
    • -ignores impact of population dynamics (age) - huge disasters like Hurricane Katrina can cause increase of GDP

    • Purchasing power parity
    • Level of technological development - how many people have internet? cell phone?
    • Energy consumption per capita - wasteful
    • Percentage of workforce in agricultures
  33. Economic and non-economic measures of development are usually _________.
  34. Non-economic measures of development (6)
    • 1)Education
    • 2)Public service
    • 3)Health
    • 4)Political freedom
    • 5)Cultural development
    • 6)Happiness
  35. 1)Education
    • measured by literacy rate or percentage of people who attend school
    • increases occupational opportunities
    • is a precondition for the transfer of advanced technology
    • decreases fertility
  36. 2)Public services
    • measured by percentage of population that has access to safe drinking water and sanitary disposal of human wastes
    • level of public services influences overall health of population
  37. 3) Health
    • measured by:
    • life expectancy
    • infant mortality rate
    • access to medical facilities
    • state health expenditive
  38. 4)Political freedom
  39. 5) Cultural development
    hope people retain culuture through generations
  40. 6) Happiness
    • surveys, look at suicide rates
    • GHI - growth happiness
    • Bhatan has high happiness
  41. Human development index
    • **Most commonly used!
    • combines (culmulative) other measure - life expectancy, literacy rate, GDP, HDI
    • Norway is ranked #1, Canada #3 and US #6
  42. Possible explanations for lack of development (5)
    • 1)Tropical or arid climate
    • 2)Scarcity of natural resources
    • 3)Overpopulation
    • 4)Experience of colonialism
    • 5)Political and economic systems
  43. 1)Tropical or arid climate
    -But: tropical Malaysia/Singapore prospers while mid-latitude Afghanistan doesn't
  44. 2)Scarcity of natural resources
    • -But: Japan is economically successful despite scarce resources
    • Heavy reliance on the export of resources may delay development
  45. 3)Overpopulation
    -But: densely settled Singapore prospers, while empty Mauritania doesn't
  46. 4)Experience of colonialism
    -But: independence fostered economic development in the US and Australia; never colonized Ethiopia struggles
  47. 5)Politcal and economic systems
    How you see what you have is most IMPORTANT!
  48. Development theories (3)
    • 1)Modernization theory (1950 and 1960)
    • 2)Dependency Theory (1970)
    • 3)Sustainable development (1990)
  49. 1) Modernization Theory (1950 and 1960)
    • Assumption that all nations should follow the western model of development (ethnocentric)
    • Foreign aid aims at improving infrastructure such as power plants, factories and port facilities
    • 3 Great Gorges dam in China & Amazon road brought in loggers = not a good change for them
  50. 2) Dependency Theory (1970)
    • Argument that lack of development is due to dependency on the core
    • Encouragement of import substitution strategies (often through nationalization of key industries)
  51. 3) Sustainable development (1990)
    • Idea that progress should not come at the expense of the future generations (climate change, resource use, pollution, etc.)
    • Technologies should be adapted to the societies in which they are used
  52. Gender & Development
  53. define sex
    biological differences between men and women
  54. define gender
    • socially constructed differences between the sexes
    • *gender equality is hight in more developed countries
  55. The geography of gender inequality (6)
    • 1. Health
    • 2. Demography
    • 3. Social conditions
    • 4. Education
    • 5. Work
    • 6. Politics
  56. 1) Health
    • Women live longer in most countries
    • In several countries, women have less access to healthcare
    • Women experience maternity-related health problems especially in India
  57. 2) Demography
    • Sex selective abortions (China)
    • Female infanticide
  58. 3) Social Conditions
    • Different treatment of men and women
    • Violence against women
    • --> dowry deaths- women killed if husband/family is unhappy with dowry
  59. 4) Education
    Girls' education is often a lower priority
  60. 5) Work
    • Increasing female labor force participation
    • Persisting wage gap
  61. 6) Politics
    • Limted voting rights in some countrie
    • Under-representation in office
  62. Foreign Adi
    • Aid doesn't necessarily result in economic growth - misuse of aid and also with the aid - the people in the country are not able to grow as much because their product won't sell
    • Donations are often guided by political, not humanitarian, considerations
    • Donations often have to be used to purchase goods in the donor country
    • -Best donor countries are the Scandanavians - Norway is number 1
  63. Quote by David Rieff
    "....Most development agencies are ill received... Rather outside development aid do not achieve lasating values, but created an extraordinary culutre of dependence"
  64. Quote by Mary Anderson
    Keypoint: We're making it worse by donating even thought we intend for it to be good.
  65. Alternatives
    • Debt reliefs
    • Support for self-help (e.g. microcredit)
  66. Millenium development guide
    • 1) halve the # of people living on a dollar/day
    • 2) ensure children complete primary
    • 3) educate boys and girls
    • 4) reduce infant mortality rate
    • 5) increase aid & improve goverance
  67. Introduction to Political Geography
    Politcal geography is the study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena
  68. Define state/country
    It is an independent political entity holding sovereignty (right to control own area) over a territory

    Almost the entire land surface of the earth is divided into states except: Antarctica, Colonies and Protectorates - doesn't own, but controls international affairs
  69. Define nation
    • Is a group of people w/a common ancestry, regardless of whether this group controls a common territory or not
    • Most natins share a common religion, language and culture
  70. Define Nation State
    • It's a state whose territorial extent coincides w/that occupied by a nation
    • Examples: Iceland and Portugal
    • Few states are true states
    • Most states are ethnically heterogeneous (e.g. Yugoslavia and Afghanistan)
    • A nation can be dispersed over several states (Arabs)
    • Some nations don't have their own states ( The Kurds, Basques or Palestinians)
  71. Formation of Borders (4)
    • Antecedent - drawn before development of settlement; rarely cause conflicts
    • Subsequent - paralle development of settlements and borders
    • Superimposed - separate a unified cultural landscape; large potential for conflicts
    • Relic - border that's lost its function
  72. Creating formal borders steps:
    • 1) Definition in a treaty or document
    • 2) Delineation on a map
    • 3) Demarcation on the ground
    • 4) "Fortification" - sometimes; some kind of physical border
    • -ex: Berlin Wall - west was free, but wall was build around them
    • -wall started from ground out: barb wire to a thin wall to a thicker and taller wall with barbed wires on top and soilders guarding with guns
    • -Lots of lights by border, watch tower, soilders taught to shoot insight and kill
    • -in order to cross into the east side, had to get a permit
    • -permit stated how many times a person could go in, got an entry and exit ticket
    • -everything was searched through; couldn't bring anything in or out of country - especially people
    • -1989 Berling wall was torn down; one country again in 1990
    • -People in Germany still have it in their head unconsciously
  73. Conflicts over borders
    • Definition - disputes arise due to imprecise wording of treaties or documents
    • Location - disagreements regarding delineation and demarcation
    • -ex: Border between Ecuador and Peru
    • Operational - disagreement about border policies
    • Allocational - dispute over the allocation of resources
    • -ex: Kuwait and Iraq over oil
  74. Supranationalism
    • Supranational organizations link states w/a common goal and encourage regional cooperation
    • -Economic: EU, NAFTA, ASEAN, MERCOSUR
    • -Political: NATO=North Atlantic
    • Supranational organizations diminish states sovereignty to some extent
  75. The European Union (regional-supranational)
    • The EU was founded in the 1950's to promote peace and foster economic cooperation
    • Over time, the EU has expanded:
    • -1955: Six founding states (D= Germany, France, Italy, Benelux=Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) - enemies included
    • -1973: Northern enlargement (IRL=Ireland, UK, DK=Denmark)
    • -1980s: Mediterranean enlargement (SP=Spain, P=Portugal, GR=Greece)
    • 1994: Austria, Finland and Sweden
    • ~Norway's still nervous about union bc still go whaling and also supply most of oil to europe
    • -2004: Malta, Cyprus, and 8 Eastern Europe states join
    • -2007: Addition of Bulgaria and Romania
    • -----Turkey's tried for a long time to joing

    • Copehagen Criteria for membership:
    • -Stable democracy
    • -Respect human rights
    • -Market economies (not communist)
    • -Acceptance of EU regulations (60,000 pages)
  76. Over time, EU countires cooperate on more and more issues. For example:
    • Single market: Free movement of goods services, people and capital (1980) w/o fees...etc
    • Closer cooperation regarding crime, immigration, etc. (1990s)
  77. Single Currency (EURO)
    • 1990s: Establishment of "convergence criteria" for monetary union
    • 2002: Formal launch of the EURO in 12 states
  78. Development of a common constitution for ALL 27 states (EURO)
    • French & Dutch voters rejected the constitution (original members)
    • Recent revisions
  79. 1994: NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) - regional-supranational
    • Connects the US, Canada and Mexico
    • First economic alliance linking countries w/different levels of economic development
  80. 1994: NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) - regional-supranational
    • Components (agreed on)
    • -Reduction of trade barriers - tariffs
    • -Foreign direct investment
    • -Environmental standards

    However, there are many exceptions and transitional rules
  81. 1994: NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) - regional-supranational
    • Advantages for Mexico
    • -Increasing access in US market
    • -More employment opportunities for Mexicans
    • -Access to modern technology

    • Motivations for the US
    • -Access to cheap mexican labor
    • -Instrument to stimulate Mexico's economic reforms and curb illegal immigration
  82. International Organizations: The United Nations (UN)
    • Predecessor: League of Nations (1919)
    • UN established in 1945 by 51 countries
    • Now 192 member states (most recent: E. Timor & Switzerland)
  83. International Organizations: The United Nations (UN)
    • Goals:
    • -Maintain international peace and security
    • -Develop friendly relationships among states
    • -Cooperate in solving international problems
    • -Promote respect for human rights
  84. UN institutions
    • General Assembly
    • -Makes recommendations, but cannot force actions
    • -Important indicator of world opinion
  85. UN institutions
    • Security Council
    • -Currently 15 members (5 permanent and 10 rotating non-permanent)
    • *****on Exam: Permanent Members are US, China, France, UK and Russia and they can veto decisions
    • -Call for reforms, as the security council does not reflect current realities
    • ****On exam--->Candidates for permanent membership: Germany, S. Africa, Brazil, Japan or India, Turkey or Indonesia

    • Member states are obliged to carry out the council's decisions
    • Can impose economic sanctions or order an arms embargo
    • Can order UN peacekeeping missions
  86. Other UN Institutions
    • 1)Economic and Social Conflict: makes policy recommendations on social and economic issues (ex: unemployment)
    • 2)Secretariat: carries out administrative work
    • 3) Trusteeship Council: supervises trust territories until they achieve independence
  87. Other agencies (***On Exam)
    • 1) International monetary fund: fiscal cooperation and stability
    • 2) World Bank: loans and technical assistance for developing states
    • 3) World health organization (WHO): organizes what to do when disease break out
    • 4) United nations high comminsioner on refugees (UNHCR): provide camps
    • 5) United nations development program (UNDP)
    • 6) United nations children's fund (UNICEF)
    • 7) United nations educational, scientific and culutural organization (UNESCO): heritage sites --grand canyon, yellowstone, ellis island
  88. The International Criminal Court
    • Established in 2002 in response to the Yugoslavia and Rwanda conflicts
    • Deals w/genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes
    • participation is voluntary, but members are obligated to comply w/the court's decision
  89. US opposition to the ICC
    • The US oppose the court's universal jurisdiction fearing that they might be punished for their international involvement
    • Fears politically motivated decisions by the independent court prosecutor
    • But: The ICC complements, rather than replaces national courts
    • Not as effective
  90. Urban Geography
  91. What is a city?
    • With high population numbers (e.g. 200 in Sweden, 2,500 in US and 30,000 in Japan)
    • With high population densities
    • Which also serves the surrounding areas

    • Book definition:
    • a city is a concentration of people with predominatly non-rural occupations and an urban lifestyle
  92. Urban geography exames:
    the location, function and growth of cities as well as their internal structure
  93. Urban form:
    physical structure and organization of cities
  94. Urban systems
    connection between cities
  95. Urban ecology:
    social and demographic compositions of neighborhood
  96. Urbanization (as a process):
    increasing in the proportion of people living in cities
  97. Urbanization rate:
    percentage of people live in cities (results; 70% in US live in cities)
  98. Ranking countries by urbanization rate (**on exam)
    • #1 - North America and Europe have high urbanization rates
    • #2 Latin america: rapid urbanization thru rural-urban migration
    • #3- Asia: wide-range of urbanization rates
    • -Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong
    • -Indochina, India, China (low urbanization)
    • #4 Africa: very low urbaniztion rate
  99. Global cities
    • Global cities play key roles in organizing space beyond national borders (most industrial cities)
    • -17th century: Amsterdam, Venice
    • -18th century: Paris, Rome, Vienna
    • -19th century: Berlin, Chicago, St. Petersburg
    • -20th century: London, New York, Tokyo

    Global cities have become control centers for the flow of info, cultural products and finance
  100. Urban hierarchy
    • Rank-size rule: the size of a city can be predicted by its rank in the ubran hierarchy: the nth city will have 1/nth of the population of the largest city
    • A city that is much larger than any other city in the same urban system is called a primate city
  101. European Cities
    • European urban traditions date back to the ancient Greek and Romans
    • European cities are mixture of elements of elements from different urban hx periods (yr 1000)
    • Medieval cities: windy roads, fortifications (small roads and city walls) - chaotic and jumboed together
    • Renaissance cities: symmetrical layout, large squares
    • Industrial cities: living conditions worse than Medieval bc has such high population (people coming from rural places)
  102. The contemporary European City
    • 1) Urban cores remain popular commercial and residential centers (high densities) by market squares
    • 2) Skylines are dominated by churches or hilltop castle (London and Frankfurt look american-like)
    • 3) Apartment living is popular
    • 4) Reliance on public transit
    • 5) Cities are relatively prosperous
    • 6) Relatively low urban poverty and crime rates
  103. North American Cities
    • Colonial cities
    • -The founding of cities occupied a key position in colonial policy

    • North American citities were planned on virgin land
    • The design of early American cities were influenced by European traditions
  104. Philadelphia and the Grid
    • William Penn gave detailed instructions
    • -Site: high, free from flooding
    • -Regular street pattern
    • -Open squares
    • Land was sold before it was developed (land speculations)
    • The speculative grid became the dominant urban form in N. America
    • -Most suburbs are not built on a grid
  105. Suburbanization
    Residential suburbanization was made possible by transportation innovations

    • Characteristics of modern suburbs
    • -low density (single family homes)
    • -not served by public transport
    • -curved streets, cul-de-sacs
    • -relatively homogenous architecture (west area)
  106. Urban sprawl
    rapid suburbanization leads to urban sprawl
  107. Commercial suburbanization
    Development of shopping malls and office complexes in edge cities (often at the intersection of hwys)
  108. The decline of the Inner city
    • The outmigration of the middle class
    • -Loss of tax base
    • -Loss of retail
    • The inner city deteriorates more and more and it makes it hard to bring urban back
  109. Gentrification is...
    often used as a strategy to revitalize areas
  110. Segregation
    • voluntary segregation by income, lifestyle, etc.
    • -senior communities
    • -gated communities
  111. Latin American
    • Colonial cities were founed soon after conquest (1600)
    • Colonial cities were often superimposed on precolonial cities
  112. Morphology of the Colonial city
    • Plaza surrounded by public buildings (church, town hall)
    • Grid street system extending from the plaza
    • Socio-economic status decreases w/distance from the plaza
  113. 19th & 20th century changes
    • development of elite and industrial sectors
    • Emergence of a modern CBD(central B... district)
    • Massive immigration here
    • Neighborhoods in "a state of permanent construction"
    • --build 1 floor w/some rooms and add more floors as get money
    • Periphery: squatter settlements w/no or minimal public services (water, sewer and electric)
  114. Islamic City
    • Friday Mosque (main)
    • -place of prayer and community center
    • Surrounding it, Suk (souk, bazaar)
    • -surrounding the main mosque
    • -organized by goods sold
    • Neighborhoods
    • -central on mosques
    • -separation according to religion, language, tribal afflilation
    • Kabash: citadel attached to the city wall
    • Cal-de-sac street patterns (confusing)
    • -protection (no clear line of shot)
    • -privacy (of women, courtyards)
    • Islamic houses
    • -courtyards
    • -windows w/wooden lattices, no windows built on 1st floor
  115. Urban Problems in developing nations
    • Housing
    • -many cities in developing nations are growing rapidly -- high population densities, informal settlements
    • -pavement dwellers in calcutta
    • -garbage dwellers in Bangkok
    • -cementeries in Cairo

    • Squatter (Informal) settlement
    • -built on illegally occupied land
    • -violate builiding and zoning codes - how high, material, etc
    • -quickly constructed by the occupants w/scrap materials - cardboards, tin sheets, wood
    • -people usually all cluster and build a lot because police doesn't destroy and it's tolerated that way
    • -located on marginal sites - flood plains, on steep slopes, in swampy areas and dry areas
    • -improvisioned access to water, electric, etc
    • -over time, improvements are made as
    • ~tenure become more secure and will invest more
    • ~funds/materials are available
    • -The city may eventually provide pub services
  116. Underemployment
    • The vast majority of the poor is employed in the informal sector:
    • -street vendors
    • -sweatshops
    • -garbage collection
    • #1 city w/people employed in informal sector, Bishkek, Kyrgzstan
  117. Water
    • Many people have to use contaminated water
    • Diseases related to contaminated water are widespread
    • -parasites and diarrheal diseases
    • -shocking # - Sao Paulo, Brazil has 1000 miles of open sewers
  118. Natural Hazards
    • Mudslides (often triggered by hurricane related flooding)
    • Flooding - ex: Bangladesh
    • Earthquakes
Card Set
Final exam material