What is the difference between Quality Management(QM), Quality Assurance(QA) and Quality Control(QC)
QM-Is the overall program that deals with patient satisfaction
QA-Deals with patient care and image interpretation
QC-Deals with imaging instrumentation and equipment
What specific areas fall under patient care?
Staff-Patient communication and relationships
What specific areas fall under image interpretation?
Matching patient condition to radiologist diagnosis
Proper record keeping
Timely reporting of results
Who has the ultimate or overall responsibility for quality assurance?
What are some reasons that QC programs are required?
Maintain high level of patient care
Required by insurance companies
required by JCAHO
Required by law
What are three steps of quality control?
Acceptance testing for new equipment
Routine performance monitoring
Who is principally responsible for the QC program?
A densitometer compares the mount of light emitted by the light source with the amount of light transmitted through the film which equates to?
Radiographic film densities in the straight line portion of the D Log E Log curve range from OD___to____?
What are the other names used for the D Log E curve?
Hurter and Driffeld
Describe the radiographic QC requirements for Filtration?
Most important patient protection device
Minimum of 2.5Al required
Annual check or after change of x-ray tube
Describe the radiographic QC requirements for Collimation?
X-ray field must coincide with the light field
Misalignment must not exceed +/- 2% of SID
Describe the radiographic QC requirements for Focal Spot Size?
Slit camera used to measure focal spot size
Annual check or after installation of new equipment
Tolerance is liberal- +/- 50%
Describe the radiographic QC requirements for kVp calibration?
Filtered ion chambers or filtered photodiodes used
Annual check or significant change in high voltage generator components
Maximum variance is +/- 10% between measured and indicated kVp
Describe the radiographic QC requirements for Exposure timer accuracy?
Spinning top or more sophisticated electronic equipment used
Annual check or after change or repair of major components
A variance of +/- 20% is acceptable for exposure times of 10ms or less
Describe the radiographic QC requirements for Exposure linearity?
Ability of radiographic unit to produce constant radiation output for various combinations of mA and exposure time.
Precision radiation dosimeter used to measure radiation intensity
Must be within +/- 10% for adjacent mA stations
Describe the radiographic QC requirements for Exposure Reproducibility?
Involves making repeated exposures with the same mA and time
Precision radiation dosimeter used to measure radiation output
Output radiation intensity cannot vary by more than +/- 5%
Describe the radiographic QC requirements for Radiographic Intensity Screens?
Screens should be cleaned on a regular basis
Film-screen contact should be measured once or twice a year
Describe the radiographic QC requirements for Protective Apparel?
All protective aprons, gloves, thyroid and gonadal shields should be checked annually for defects
Describe the radiographic QC requirements for Film Illuminators (view box)?
Should be conducted annually
Done with photometer
Should not vary more than 10% across the surface
What are the patient entrance skin exposures(ESE) limits during normal or standard fluoroscopy exams?
What are the patient entrance skin exposure(ESE) for cardiovascular and interventional procedures?
What are the patient entrance skin exposures(ESE) for recorded fluoroscopy exams?
How often should the fluoroscopy automatic exposure system be checked?
What are the QC requirements for conventional tomography?
What daily QC actions should be taken for the processor?
Clean crossover racks
Check developer temperature
Check wash water temperature
Check replenishment tanks
Sensitometry and densitometry
How often should processors have a total cleaning?
Weekly to Monthly
List and describe the types of processor maintenance?
1) Scheduled-Procedures performed on a routine basis
A)-Observation of moving parts
B)- Adjustments of belts, pulleys, and gears
2) Preventative-Planned program of parts replacement at regular intervals
3) Nonscheduled- failure in system requiring repair