Bio Exam 3

  1. Define synergistic pair
    muscles that contract at the same time
  2. Define antagonistic pair
    muscles that contract at opposite times
  3. Define insertion
    end attachment to the bone that moves
  4. Define origin
    end attachment to the bone that sits still
  5. What are the 5 steps of the sliding filament model of contraction?
    • Resting sacromere
    • cross-bridge attachment
    • bending of myosin head (the power stroke)
    • cross-bridge detachment
    • myosin reactivation
  6. What does troponin do during muscle contraction?
    block the actin filament binding sites
  7. What does tropomyosin do during muscle contraction?
    block the actin filament binding sites
  8. What do calcium ions do during muscle contraction?
    bind to troponin and open up actin binding sites
  9. Define motor unit
    a motor neuron and all of the muscle cells it stimulates
  10. Define slow-twitch muscle cells
    contract slowly, last a long time once they get going
  11. Define fast-twitch muscle cells
    contract more quickly, dont last as long
  12. List the divisions of the central and peripheral nervous systems
    • CNS - brain and spinal cord
    • PNS - nerves and bunches of nerves (found everywhere but brain and spinal cord)
    • divided into:
    • somatic - muscle movement
    • autonomic - digestive system
    • Autonomic --
    • sympathetic - fight or flight
    • parasympathetic - conserves energy
  13. Define sensory neuron
    • carry info toward brain and spinal cord
    • (hands, ears, eyes)
  14. Define motor neuron
    • carry info away from brain and spinal cord
    • (muscles)
  15. Define interneuron
    • reflexes
    • only in brain and spinal cord
    • (knee reflex)
  16. Define axon
    • send signals out
    • Image Upload 2
  17. Define dendrite
    • recieve info
    • Image Upload 4
  18. Define cell body
    • controls
    • Image Upload 6
  19. Define myelin sheath
    • insulating outer layer around the axons
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  20. Define node of Ranvier
    • spaces between the myelin sheaths
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  21. List the steps of action potential
    • resting potential -70mV
    • 1. Sodium ions enter neurons
    • 2. Potassium ions leave the neuron
    • 3. Sodium-potassium pump is active
    • 4. returns to resting potential -70mV
  22. Define saltatory conduction
    • signals jump down the axon
    • generates a response quicker
  23. Define synapse
    junction between a nerve cell and another cell
  24. Define presynaptic bulb
    neurotransmitters are released at the end of an axon
  25. Define postsynaptic neuron
    synapse binds to receptors on the 2nd cell
  26. Define neurotransmitter
    synapses are crossed with chemicals
  27. Define meninges
    3 protective connective tissue coverings of the brain and spinal cord
  28. Define cerebrospinal fluid
    fills in the space between the layers of the meninges
  29. Define blood-brain barrier
    selects materials permitted to enter the CSF from the blood
  30. What are the 3 layers of the meninges?
    • Dura matter
    • Arachnoid
    • Pia mater
  31. Define cerebrum
    largest and most prominent part of the brain
  32. Define cerebral cortex
    outer layer of brain
  33. Define corpus collosum
    two hemispheres connected by a band of nervous tissue
  34. Define gray matter
    nerve cell bodies and unmyelinated axons
  35. Define white matter
    under the cortex that is made up of myelinated axons
  36. Define motor area
    area that will send messages to the skeletal muscles
  37. Define sensory area
    sends info to the cerebral cortex
  38. Define association area
    links things together
  39. Define hypothalamus
    small region of the brain largely responsible for homeostasis
  40. Define medulla
    connects the spinal cord to the brain
  41. Define midbrain
    processes info about sights and sounds and controls relfex responses
  42. Define pons
    bridge structure, connects lower portions of CNS with higher brain structures
  43. Define limbic system
    group of structures that generates memory and emotions
  44. Define reticular activating system
    filter for sensory input
  45. List the steps in a spinal reflex arc
    • 1. stimulus initiates pain
    • 2. sensory messages are carried to spinal cord by sensory neuron
    • 3. interneurons integrate info from sensory neurons and stimulate motor neurons
    • 4. motor neurons stimulate correct muscles
    • 5. muscle contracts and causes you to lift foot
  46. Define spinal nerve
    • 31 pairs in the spinal cord
    • 1 pair controls left, 1 controls right
  47. Define cranial nerve
    12 pairs that serve the head and other body parts
  48. Define concussion
    brain knocking up against the skull
  49. Define stroke
    a blood clot in the brain
  50. Define quadriplegic
    loss of use of all 4 limbs, spinal cord break in neck
  51. Define paraplegic
    loss of 2 limbs (legs), spinal cord break in back
  52. Define positive feedback loop
    amplifies an action
  53. Define negative feedback loop
    reverses an action
  54. What is the function of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone)?
    stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones
  55. What is the function of ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
    stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol
  56. What is the function of FSH?
    stimulates sperm & egg production
  57. What is the function of LH?
    stimulates sperm & egg production
  58. What is the function of prolactin?
    produces milk
  59. What is the function the human growth hormone?
    tells bones & muscles to get bigger
  60. What is the function the melanocyte-stimulating hormone?
    • no known function
    • but known to induce color changes in skin
  61. What is the function of oxytocin?
    • muscle contraction
    • stimulates milk
  62. What is the function of ADH?
    stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water and keeping it in the blood
  63. What is the function of the thyroid hormone?
    controls metabolism
  64. What is the function of calcitonin?
    • removes calcium from bloodstream
    • builds bone
  65. What is the function of aldosterone?
    tells the kidney to keep salts & remove potassium
  66. What is the function of cortisol?
    increases blood glucose level
  67. What is the function of testosterone?
    sex hormone
  68. What is the function of estrogen?
    sex hormone
  69. What is the function of epinephrine?
    • adrenalin
    • allows body to respond to emergencies
  70. What is the function of insulin?
    causes blood glucose level to go down
  71. What is the function of glucagon?
    increases the level of blood sugar
  72. What is the function of melatonin?
    sleep/wake cycle
  73. What causes Gigantism?
    too much growth hormone during childhood
  74. What causes dwarfism?
    not enough growth hormone produced
  75. What causes acromegaly?
    too much growth hormone after puberty
  76. What causes Cushing's syndrome?
    prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol
  77. What causes Addison's disease?
    the immune system attempts to destroy the cells of the adrenal cortex
  78. Define plasma
    • a liquid matrix
    • water and proteins
  79. Define formed elements
    cells & platelets
  80. What is in plasma?
    liquid matrix
  81. What is in formed elements?
    blood cells and platelets
  82. What are the functions of blood?
    • carries materials
    • provide for immune defenses
    • clotting mechanisms
    • regulates the body's acid-base balance
    • helps to regulate body temp
  83. Define hemophilia
    • bleeding troubles
    • inability to heal wounds quickly after a minor injury
  84. Define granulocytes
    have granules in their cytoplasm
  85. Define agranulocytes
    have no granules or very small granules
  86. Define platelets
    blood clotting
  87. Define neutrophils
    surrounds bacteria and eats it
  88. Define eosinophils
    defend body against worms
  89. Define basophils
    helps increase allergic reactions
  90. Define monocytes
    blob that goes around looking for things to eat (clean up)
  91. Define lymphocytes
    • produce antibodies
    • kills cells directly
  92. Define red blood cells
    small, disk-like cells that lack a nucleus
  93. What is a function of blood cells?
    transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
  94. What is a function of platelets?
    blood clotting
  95. What 3 gases can hemoglobin transport?
    • carbon monoxide
    • carbon dioxide
    • oxygen
  96. Define anemia
    • low red blood cell count
    • low oxygen = low energy
  97. Define mononucleosis
    • caused by Epstein-Barr virus
    • low energy
  98. Define hemolytic disease
    Rh- mother having a Rh+ baby produces antibodies that try to kill off the baby
  99. Define leukemia
    cancer of the white blood cells
  100. Define platelet plug
    platelets clump @ site of damage & partially seal the leak
  101. Define thrombin
    an enzyme that cuts fibrinogen
  102. Define fibrin
    • forms a mesh net
    • forms a blood clot
  103. What is the function of an artery?
    carries blood away from the heart
  104. What is the function of arteriole?
    maintains blood pressure
  105. What is the function of a capillary?
    exchange materials between blood & body tissues
  106. What is the function of a venule?
    move blood back to the heart
  107. What is the function of a vein?
    returns blood to the heart
  108. Why do veins and venules have vavles?
    keeps blood going forward towards heart
  109. Define capillary bed
    network of capillaries servicing a specific area
  110. Define precapillary sphincter
    ring of smooth muscles that surround capillary
  111. What is the function of the semilunar vavles?
    keeps blood from flowing backwards
  112. What is the function of atrioventricular valves?
    keeps blood from flowing backwards
  113. Where does blood flow in the pulmonary circuit?
    to the lungs & back to heart
  114. Where does blood flow in the systemic circuit?
    to and from body tissues
  115. What is the major function of the coronary arteries?
    feeds the heart muscle
  116. Define sinoatrial (SA) node
    initiate heartbeat & causes atria to contract
  117. Define pacemaker
    sends a signal to initiate each heartbeat
  118. Define atrioventricular (AV) node
    recieves signals from SA node & initiates contraction of ventricles
  119. Which of the nodes is considered the hearts pacemaker?
    Sinoatrial (SA) node
  120. Define blood pressure
    measure of blood pushing against wall of blood vessels
  121. Define high blood pressure
    heart enlarges & works less efficiently
  122. Define atherosclerosis
    buildup of fatty substances in the walls of arteries cutting off blood flow
  123. Define heart attack
    a blood vessel to the heart is blocked
  124. What does the top and bottom #'s in a blood pressure reading mean?
    • Top - systolic pressure - contracting
    • Bottom - diastolic pressure - relaxing
  125. What are 2 functions of the lymphatic system?
    • returns excess interstitial fluid to blood
    • transports fat
  126. What are the advantages of breathing through the nose instead of the mouth?
    it filters, warm, and moisten air before entering the lungs
  127. What happens during inhalation?
    you breathe in
  128. What happens during exhalation?
    breathing out
  129. How does the pressure of the chest cavity influence the movement of air during exhalation?
    air pressure is higher than the air pressure outside the lungs, air is pushed out of lungs
  130. How does the pressure of the chest cavity influence the movement of air during inhalation?
    the air pressure outside of the lungs is greater than air pressure inside the lungs
  131. How are gases transported into and out of the alveoli?
    oxygen is breathed in enters blood from alveoli & carbon dioxide leaves the blood
  132. What are 3 ways that carbon dioxide is carried in the blood?
    • dissolved in blood plasma
    • carried by hemoglobin
    • transported as carbonate ions
  133. Define the common cold
    • caused by a virus
    • runny nose, sore throat, sneezing
  134. Define flu
    • caused by a virus/bacteria
    • similar to colds
    • chills, high fever, aches & pains, headache, sore throat, weakness, dry cough
  135. Define pneumonia
    caused by bacteria or virus in the lungs where bronchi & alveoli fill up with fluid
  136. Define strep throat
    • caused by bacteria
    • swollen glands, fever, tonsillitis
  137. Define bronchitis
    • result of other infections
    • chronic inflammation of the bronchial passageway & buildup of mucus
  138. Define emphysema
    airways are always inflamed & filled with mucus
  139. Define lung cancer
    cells undergo critical mutation that cause basal cells of lungs to be disorganized
Card Set
Bio Exam 3
Bio Exam 3