What are the three parts to an ATP molecule?
Adenine, Ribose, and Phosphate
How is energy released from an ATP molecule?
When a phosphate is broken off
What is ADP?
What is AMP?
What does an enzyme do?
Speeds up chemical reactions
How does an enzyme work?
They reduce the amount of activation energy needed for a chemical reaction?
What three factors affect an enzyme's activity?
- pH Level
- Enzyme and Substrate concentration
Enzymes are specific, which mean?
That they only carry out one reaction
What is a common use of enzymes?
Cleaning products and Laundry detergents (help break down proteins)
What is photosynthesis?
The process in which plants trap the sun's energy and use it to make sugar (glucose)
What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2+6H2O+ Light Energy ---> C6H12O6+6O2
What are the two phases of photosynthesis?
- Light-Dependent Reactions
- The Calvin Cycle
Why are pigments important?
They trap the energy in the sun's light
What is photolysis?
The process of restoring electrons
How are lost electrons restored?
Water molecules are split
What does photolysis provide us with?
The air that we breathe
Identify what goes into the spots for numbers 1-15
- 1: Cytoplasm
- 2: Anaerobic
- 3: Glucose
- 4:Pyruvic Acid
- 5: 2
- 6: Mitochondria
- 7: Aerobic
- 8: Pyruvic acid/CoenzymeA
- 9: Citric Acid
- 10: 2
- 11: Mitochondria
- 12: Aerobic
- 13: Oxygen/Electrons (NADH and FADH2)
- 14: Water
- 15: 34
What is needed during a light-dependent reaction?
- Needed: Light and Water
- Formed: NADPH, Oxygen, and ATP
What is needed and formed during the Calvin Cycle (light-independent reaction)?
- Needed: NADPH, Oxygen, ATP
- Formed: Glucose
Where do light-dependent reactions take place?
Where does the Calvin Cycle take place?
What is the order of the following statements for light-dependent reactions:
A: Highly energized electrons go through the electron transport chain- a series of proteins embedded in the thylakoid membrane
B: Electrons travel though a second electron transport chain
C: NADP+ combines with a hydrogen ion and fornms NADPH
D: The electron is transfered to the stroma by NADP+
E: The energy being released can be used to form ATP from ADP
F: Energy transferred to electrons (found in the thylakoid membrane
G: At each step along the chain, the electron loses energy
H: Sunlight strikes a chlorophyll molecule in the thylakoin membrane
What is the order of the following steps of the Calvin Cycle?
A: One of the sugars becomes glucose
B: Carbon dioxide is added to a five-carbon molecule by an enzyme
C: The other sugare goes through reactions to become the original five-carbon molecule
D: The resulting six-carbon molecule splits into two, three-carbon molecules. Phosphate from ATP and an electron from NADPH are added to form sugars
How many rounds does it take in the Calvin Cycle to make one sugar?
What is cellular respiration?
The process in which the mitochondria break down food
What is the equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6+6O2 -----> 6CO2+ 6H2O+ ATP
What are the three stages of cellular respiration?
- Citric Acid Cycle
- Electron Transport Chain
In the three stages of cellular respiration which are aeribuc abd which are anaerobic?
- Citric Acid Cycle-aerobic
- Electron Transport Chain-aerobic
In glycolysis what is glucose converted to? And what is the net profit the ATP molecules?
During the citric acid cycle, pyruvic acid combines with _________ to form ___________.
For every turn of the citric acid cycle, ______ ATP molecules are made. How many turns are there?
What is the final electron receptor in the electron transport? When it is bonded with hydrogen ions, it forms __________.
- 2 molecules of water
How many ATP molecules are produced by the electron transport chain?
34 ATP molecules
In ideal situations, how many total ATP molecules are produced?
38 ATP molecules
When does fermentation occur?
When there is no oxygen for a short period of time?
Identify the three parts of the molecule, as well as the type of molecule.
- ATP Molecule
- 1- Adenine
- 2- Ribose
- 3- Phosphate
What are some of the differences between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
What does chlorophyll a and b do?
It absorbs most wavelengths of light except green (which is reflected)
What are carotenoids?
The orange pigments in plants