1. Amaurosis Fugax
    Temoporary monocular vision loss from decreased blood supply to retina (arteritis, mural thrombus r/t cardiac arrhythmia)
  2. Central vision loss
    Macular degeneration
  3. Peripheral vision loss
  4. Floaters or flashes of light
    retinal or vitreous detachment. One or two may be nml
  5. Halo aorund eyes
    R/t acute narrow angle glaucoma or digoxin toxicity
  6. Scotoma
    Blind spots. Glaucoma, visual pathway disorders (e.g. ocular migraines)
  7. Night blindness
    R/t optic atrophy (age related), laucoma, vitamin A deficiency
  8. Diplopia
    Double vision
  9. Photophobia
    light sensitivity
  10. Strabismus
    Crossed eyes. In childhood. Weak muscles
  11. Redness or swelling of eye
    • 1. infection
    • 2. allergies
    • 3. dryness
    • 4. mechanical (foreign body)
  12. Epiphora
    Excessive tearing. May be due to irritants (allergies), infection or obstruction of lacrimal ducts
  13. Purulent discharge in the morning
    bacterial infection
  14. Diabetic retinopathy
    • leading cause of blindness
    • may have eye changes within 10 years of dx
  15. myopia
    Near sighted. Distance vision is impaired r/t inappropriate refraction of light rays on the retina
  16. Hyperopia
    Far sighted. Near vision is imparied d/t inappropriate refraction of light rays on the retina
  17. Oculus dexter (OD)
    right eye
  18. Oculus sinister (OS)
    Left eye
  19. Oculus united (OU)
    Both eyes
  20. Legally blind
    20/2000 after correction
  21. California requirement for vision
    20/40 or better using both eyes
  22. Presbyopia
    Decreased power of accomodation with aging. Decreased ability of the lens to change shape to acocmodate for near vision (requires bifocals). Usually occurs 42-46 y.o.
  23. Cranial Nerve II
    • Far and near vision
    • Peripheral vision (Confrontation test)
  24. Confrontation test
    Face patient at 2 feet. Assess when patient can see at periphery.
  25. Straight EOM
    • Superior Rectus
    • Inferior Rectus
    • Lateral Rectus
    • Medial Rectus
  26. Oblique EOM
    • Superior Oblique
    • Inferior Oblique
  27. What nerves are responsible for EOM
    CN 3, 4, 6
  28. Horizontal and temporal
    Lateral Rectus and CN 6
  29. Up and Temporal
    Superiod Rectus and CN 3
  30. Down and Temporal
    Inferior Rectus and CN 3
  31. Horizontal and Nasal
    Medial Rectus and CN 3
  32. Up and Nasal
    Inferior Oblique and CN 3
  33. Down and Nasal
    Superior Oblique and CN 4
  34. Nystagmus
    • Involuntary movement of eyeballs. 1-2 beats of nystagmus nml in extreme lateral gaze
    • Abn in all other positions of gaze
  35. Corneal Light Reflex
    Tests parallel alignment of eyes. Direct light source towards nasal bridge and note the position of the light reflection on each cornea
  36. Strabismus
    Deviation of and eye
  37. Esotropia
    Inward turn of eye
  38. Exotropia
    Outward turn of eye
  39. Cover Test
    Detects eye muscle weakness. Patient focuses on fixed object while covering one eye. A weak eye will drift into a relaxed position once the eye is covered. If the eye moves to reestablish fixation, then eye muscle weakness is present.
  40. Esophoria
    Eye drift inward torwards nose
  41. Exophoria
    Eye drift outward towards temporal
  42. Eyebrows with hypothyroidism
    Loss of outer 1/3
  43. Eyebrows with trichotillomania
    Irresistable urge to pull out hair
  44. Meibomian Glands
    • Lubricates lids
    • Prevents evaporation of tears
    • Provides an air tight seal when eyes are clsed
  45. Basal cell CA
    Papule with ulcerated center
  46. Hordeolum
    Sty. Localized staph infection of hair follicle at lid margin
  47. Chalazion
    Infection or retention cyst of a meibomian gland (swelling with nontender firm, discrete nodule on lid)
  48. Blepharitis
    Inflammation of eyelids secondary t staph infection or sebrrheic dematitis. Red, scaley, crusted lid margin. Treat with baby shampoo
  49. Entropion
    Inward curve of lid and lashes. Occurs with weak muscles and nml aging
  50. Ectropion
    • Most prominent on medial side. Caused increased tearing, loss of tears and dry eyes.
    • Occurs with muscle loss and nml againg
    • Cna cause conuunctivitis d/t exposure of palpebral conjunctiva
  51. Ptosis
    Drooping of upper lid – may involve CN 3, 5, 7

    The first symptom in 75% of myestenia gravis cases
  52. Canthus
    Corner of eye. Angle where lids meet
  53. Caruncle
    Small fleshy mass of inner canthus containing sebaceous glands
  54. Dacrycystitis
    Infection and blockage of lacrimal sac and duct
  55. Enopthalmos
    Sunken eyeball= Dehydration
  56. Exopthalmus
    Buldging eyeball= hyperthyroidism
  57. Sclera
    Tough fibrous, white, outer covering under transparent bulbar conjunctiva
  58. Bulbar Conjunctiva
    Protective thim mucous membrane covering the sclera
  59. Subconjunctival hemorrhage
    Red sclera secondary to increased IOP (coughing, sneezing) should resolve in a few weeks.
  60. Pinguecula
    Yellowish nodles on bulbar conjuctiva at 3 and 9 o'clock. Due to thickening secondary to sun, wind and dust exposure.
  61. Pterygium
    Overgrowth of conjunctival tissue. Starts at inner canthus and progresses torwards cornea. May affect vision if extend to pupil
  62. Limbus
    Border of sclera and iris. Bulbar conjuctiva merges with the cornea
  63. Corneal arcus
    Grayish around cornea at limbus. May be nml in patient >60yo or indicate lipid abn in younger people
  64. Keratitis
    Inflammation of cornea
  65. Astigmatism
    The spherical curve of the cornea is asymmetric around the eye, thus light rays are spread over a diffuse area rather than on a focal point on the retina.
  66. Anisocoria
    Unequal pupils. Occurs nml in 5% of the population
  67. Cataract
    Coulding of lens
  68. Nml intraocular pressure
  69. Glaucoma
    IOP>22mmHg. Affects peripheral vision
  70. Narrow angle glaucoma
    impaired drainage of aqueous humor causing increased IOP
  71. Open angle glaucoma
    the angle that drains the aqueous humor is nml but doesn't fxn nml
  72. Amblyopia
    loss of vision or blindness d/t disuse
  73. Canthelasma
    Lipid deposits at inner canthus
  74. Pseudoptosis
    Lids may droop and cover secondary to loss of elasticity, fat and muscle atrophy, thus loose skin
  75. Arcus Senilus
    Collection of broken down lipds forming a gray-white circle around the limbus
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