1. Intracellular fld is found where?
    in cells of body
  2. Is adipose tissue well hydrated?
  3. what will happen if you consume large amounts of antacids?
    metabolic alkalosis
  4. is sodium the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid?
  5. componants of extracellular fluid?
    • blood plasma and lymph
    • interstitial fld
    • cerebrospinal fld
  6. nephritis shows symptoms in body as what imbalance?
    metabolic acidosis
  7. what assists in buffering changes in pH?
    • amino acids
    • hemoglobin
    • carbonic acid/bicarbonate
    • phosphate
  8. does sodium assist in buffering a pH change?
  9. where is thirst center located?
  10. what is the main cation in intracellular fluid?
  11. with a decrease in pCO2 and in metabolic acidosis what does it tell you?
    chronic with respiratory compensation
  12. to survive humans must maintain normal volume and composition of what things?
    • ECF
    • Body fld
    • ICF
    • plasma
  13. can you overhydrate?
  14. what is the effect of decreased pH on amt of intracellular potassium ions?
    decrease in amt of potassium ions
  15. if water is lost but elecrolytes are retained what happens?
    osmosis moves water from ICF to ECF
  16. what hormone stimulates thirst mechanism?
  17. dehydration?
    water imbalance where output is more then intake causing imbalance in body fluids
  18. what happens when large amt of pure water consumed?
    osmolarities of 2 compartments are slightly lower
  19. do elecrolytes have a greater or lessor osmotic power then non elecrolytes? and what does that mean?
    Electrolytes have a greater osmotic power and have a greater ability to cause fld shifts
  20. if you consume too much salt what happens in blood volume?
    temporary increase in blood volume
  21. how much body weight of a male is water?
    60 %
  22. what is lost from body by sweat,feces and urine?
  23. what compensates for changes in pH when body fluids change drastically?
    • rate and depth of breathing
    • carbonic acid bicarbonate buffering system
    • protien buffer
  24. hormone playing a role that determines rate of sodium absorption and potassium loss?
  25. what maintains proper pH of body fluids?
    • operation of buffers in blood
    • control of respiratory ventilation
    • active secretion of H+ into filtrate by kidney tubule cells
  26. blood pH 7.6 indicates what ?
  27. what stimulates water conservation by kidney?
    antidiuretic hormone
  28. hormone released by cardiac muscle in response to abnormal stretching of heart walls?
  29. what are weak acids buffers?
    they act as chemical buffers for body as they only partially dissociate
  30. what would occur from an increased capillary hydrostatic pressure?
  31. too much vomitting and diarrhea would cause electrolyte levels to do what?
    be less or decrease
  32. major anion in ECF?
  33. major cation in intracellular fld?
  34. what does ANP (Atrial Natriuretic Peptide) do?
    • block ADH release
    • block aldosterone release
    • promote diuresis
    • reduce thirst
  35. what causes the most problems with electrolyte imbalance?
    imbalance of sodium ion gains and losses in body
  36. diabetic stops insulin d/t sore throat and swallowing pain. what acid base disorder could develop?
    metabolic acidosis, increased anion gap
  37. morbid obese, sticks to 600 calorie diet and 2000 cc water daily for 10 days. what acid base disorder could happen?
    metabolic acidosis; increase anion gap
  38. COPD, home O2 dependant, daily chronic sputum production, tx with several metered dose inhalors. what acid base disorder present?
    chronic respiratory acidosis
  39. what will happen to kidneys with a higher plasma concentration of aldosterone?
    kidney will conserve sodium ions more effectively
  40. what happens when level of sodium in extracellular fluid decreases?
    increase of aldosterone
  41. hyperkalemia?
    too much potassium
  42. several days of vomitting, pregnant woman has alkalosis. what will urine have elevated?
    concentrated bicarbonate
  43. why will hypoventilation produce acidosis?
    CO2 accumulates and reacts with H2O
  44. how does Angiotensis II produce elevation in ECF volume?
    • stimulate thirst
    • cause ADH release
    • trigger production and secretion of aldosterone
  45. when sodium in extra cellular fld increases what is stimulated?
    osmoreceptors are stimulated
  46. trauma patient with crushing leg might have what imbalance?
  47. major cation regulation for extracellular osmolarity?
  48. when is ADH greatest?
    when amout of ADH is released when blood osmolarity is HIGH
  49. what structure will eliminate excess potassium from?
  50. acid base disorder associated with elevated respiration
    respiratory alkalosis
  51. abnormally large amt of ketones in blood gives a rise to what?
    metabolic acidosis
  52. amt of potassium secreted by kidney is regulated by what hormone ?
  53. factors increasing secretion of antidiuretic hormone ?
    • increase concentration of sodium in ECF
    • water deprivation
    • decrease in renal blood flow
    • increase osmolarity of ECF
  54. in a long standing metabolic acidosis, RR may increase. what is this an example of?
  55. when dissolved in H2O what will produce ions?
  56. what hormone promotes reabsorption of calcium by kidney?
  57. when dissolved in water, acids produce what ions?
    hydrogen ions and negative ions
  58. are infants more or less prone to dehydration?
    more prone to dehydration
  59. PRIMARY role of carbonic acid- bicarbonate buffer system?
    prevent pH changes caused by organic and fixed acid
  60. do infants produce more or less metabolic waste?
  61. when is pH lower? hypoventilation or hyperventilation?
    lower after hypoventilation
  62. why are eldery more prone to acid base problems?
    slower exhaled CO2
  63. acidosis can cause what problems?
    • coma and death
    • cardiac arrhythmia
    • heart failure
    • kidney failure
  64. why are infants more prone to dehydration?
    fluid output 7x higher
  65. what do kidneys secrete when pH of extracellular flud declines?
    kidney secrete more potassium
  66. hypoventilation causes what problem?
    respiratory acidosis
  67. what is effect of a decrease in pH on amt of potassium in urine?
    increase in amout of potassium in urine
  68. in response to respiratory alkalosis what happens with carbon dioxide?
    body retains more carbon dioxide
  69. response to a rapid increase of organic acid in body what is observed?
    RR decrease
  70. prolonged vomiiting results in what ?
    metabolic alkalosis
  71. emphysema shows signs of what imbalance?
    respiratory acidosis
  72. chronic diabetes shows signs of what imbalance?
    metabolic acidosis
  73. high altitude can cause lose of consciousness as result of what imbalance?
    respiratory alkalosis
  74. define pH
    negative exponent of H+ ion concentration
  75. Elevated blood potassium will release what hormone?
  76. What condition can cause spontaneous neural firing?
  77. Which hormone causes peripheral vasodilation?
    BNP (Brain Natriuretic peptide)
  78. How will your respiratory system compensate for metabolic alkalosis?
    breathe slower so RR decreases
  79. What is the technical term for elevated sodium?
  80. The amount of potassium secreted by the kidneys is regulated by
  81. Why are levels of bicarbonate ion higher in arterial blood than venous blood
    Because more bicarbonate ions are used up in venous blood to buffer hydrogen ions
  82. principle anion in extracellular fluid is
  83. hypernatremia can be defined as
    excessive retention of plasma sodium
  84. Holding your breath for an extended period of time results in
    respiratory acidosis
  85. In compensating for respiratory alkolosis, the body excretes more
    Bicarbonate ions
  86. Drinking plain water after excessive sweating leads to
    water intoxication
  87. define neutral?
    pH 7; the soln contains equal numbers of H+ and hydroxide ions
  88. define acid
    define acidic
    • acid- a compound dissociates in soln and releases a H+ and an anion
    • acidic- soln with pH below 7; H+ ions predominate
  89. define basic
    define base
    • basic- soln with pH above 7; hydroxide ions predominate
    • base- compound where dissociation releases hydroxide or removes a hydrogen from soln
  90. alkaline?
    soln with pH above 7; hydroxide ions predominate
  91. define salt
    define buffer
    • salt- inorganic compound of cation other then H+ and anion other then hydroxide
    • buffer- compound that stabilizes pH of soln by removing or releasing H+
  92. what is a strong acid vs. weak acid?
    • strong - completely dissociates in soln
    • weak- acid where a good njmber of molecules remain intact and dissociation is not complete.
  93. strong base vs weak base?
    • weak base completely dissociates
    • strong base the molecules remain intact and dissociation is not complete
  94. intracellular fluid?
    extracellular fluid?
    interstitial fluid?
    vascular fluid?
    • intracellular- cytosol
    • extracellular-fluid outside body cells; includes interstitial and blood plasma
    • interstitial fluid- fluid in tissues filling spaces between cells
    • vascular fluid- inside blood and lymph vessels
  95. anion vs cation
    • anion (-) charge
    • cation (+) charge
  96. hypertonic
    • hypertonic- soln with higher osmolarity
    • hypotonic- soln with lower osmolarity
  97. what are osmoreceptors?
    sensitive to changes in osmolarity of plasma
  98. what is edema?
    movement of abnormal amt of water from plasma into interstitial fld
  99. acidemia vs alkalemia
    • acidemia pH below 7.35
    • alkalemia pH above 7.45
  100. compensation
    • change in anatomical system in response to change in pH
    • (renal) change in renal rates of H+ and HC03- secretion or reabsorption
    • (respiratory) change in resp rate to adjust CO2 levels
  101. buffer system
    interacting compounds prevent increase or decrese in pH of body fld
  102. fld shift
    water movement between intracell adn extracell fld
  103. when is ADH secreted?
  104. what situations stimulate secretion of aldosterone?
    • lwo BP
    • low Blood sodium level
  105. ADH function on homeostasis of water volumee in body?
    • 1) stimulates water conservation at kidney, reducing water loss in urine
    • 2) stimulate thirst center to increase fld intake.
  106. how does intracell buffer system help maintain pH of extracell plasm?
    exchanges ions in resposnse to pH; chloride for bicarbonate and potassium for hydrogen ions.
  107. how does pulmonary and renal mechanisms support chemical buffer system?
    • secretion or reabsorption of H+
    • control excretion of acid/bases
    • generate additional buffers if needed
  108. causes of metabolic acidosis
    • imparied ability to excrete H+ at kidney
    • production of large number of fixed /organic acid
    • severe bicarbonate loss
  109. term for low/high calcium levels
    • hypocalcemia-low
    • hypercalcemia-high
  110. normal values for calcium
  111. causes of hypocalcemia
    • elevated phosphate
    • loss through hypoparathyroidism
    • diet intake loss
  112. symptoms of hypocalcemia
    • numb/tingle
    • hyper reflex
    • cramps
    • tetany
    • convulsions
  113. cuase of hypercalcemia
    • too much vit D intake
    • hyperparathyroidism
  114. symptom of hypercalcemia
    • lethargy
    • weak
    • anorexia
    • neauea/vomit
    • polyuria
    • depression
    • confusion
    • coma
  115. too much chloride/too little?
    • hyperchloremia is too much
    • hypochloremia is too little
  116. normal chloride range
  117. causes for hyper/hypochloremia?
    • hyperchloremia-dehydratioin, renal fail, hyperaldosgteronism or acidosis
    • hypochloremia- vomit, aldosterone deficiency excess water intake, CHF
  118. symptoms of hyper/hypochloremia
    • hyper-weak, metabolic acidisisis, rapid deep breath
    • hypo- muscle spasm, metabolic alkalosis, hypotension
  119. too much magnesium/too little?
    • hypermagnesemia- too much magnesium
    • hypomagnesemia- too little magnesium
  120. normal magnesium range
  121. too much phosphate/too little?
    • hyperphosphatemia- too much phosphate
    • hypophosphatemia- too little phosphate
  122. normal phosphate range
  123. too much potassium/too little?
    • hypokalemia- too little potassium
    • hyperkalemia- too much potassium
  124. normal potassium range
  125. too much sodium/too little sodium
    • hypernatremia- too much sodium
    • hyponatremia- too little sodium
  126. normal sodium range
  127. normal pH
  128. normal osmolarity
  129. normal pO2
  130. normal o2
  131. normal pCO2
  132. normal bicarbonate range
  133. normal glucose rate
  134. hematocrit
    • male 40-54
    • female 37-47
  135. wbc
  136. neutrophil
  137. anion gap range
  138. urnie volume range
    600-1200 /24 hours
  139. GFR normal rate
    • male 125
    • female 115
  140. urine specific gravity range
  141. cardiac output normal range
  142. HR normal range
  143. respiratory normal ranges
    • FVC- more then 80% (if not then restrictive pulm disease such as pregnancy, penumonia, or paralysis)
    • FEV1-more then 80% (if not then obstructive pulm disease such as asthma)
    • FMEF- more then 65% or obstructive pulm disease
  144. major components of ECF
    • interstitual fld
    • plasma
  145. how much of body makes up intracell fld?
    2/3 of total body water
  146. major cation in ECF?
    major cation in ICF?
    • sodium in ECF
    • potassium in ICF
  147. major anion in ECF?
    major anion in ICF?
    • ECF is chloride
    • ICF is hydrogen phosphate (HPO4^2-)
  148. what does "water follows salt mean?"
    water wants to move passively in response to gradient. water moves from a higher solute concentration to try to dilute it.
  149. antidiuretic hormone function
    stimulate water conservation in collecting duct and thirst center
  150. function of aldosterone
    control sodium and potassium secretion of kidney tubule. if low sodium or increase in potassium then aldosterone is released
  151. function of renin
    • trigger decrease renal blood flow
    • stimulate release of angiotensin 2
  152. function of angiotensin 2
    • trigger thirst
    • increase vasoconstriction
    • stimulate release of aldosterone
  153. function of ANP?
    reduce thirst adn block release of ADH and aldosterone
  154. function of BNP
    • reduce thirst and block release of ADH adn aldosterone
    • stimulates vasodilation
  155. if ECF hypertonic what happens to water?
    water moves from Intra to extracell fluid
  156. If ECF is hypotonic what happens to water?
    water moves from Extracell fluid to inside
  157. when does secretion of potassium ion at kidney increase?
    • rise in ECF concentration
    • aldosterone secretion
  158. when does potassium retention happen at kidney?
    pH falls and sodium potassium pump switches to using H+ ion instead of K+
  159. major problem with hypokalemia? and hyperkalemia?
    • hypo-muscle weak and paralysis
    • hyper- cardiac arrhythmia
  160. what is the most important factor affecting pH of ECF?
    carbonic acid
  161. If less CO2 in body what happens to pH?
    if more CO2 in body what happens to pH?
    • less CO2 = higher pH
    • more CO2= less pH
  162. what equation do we need to know about acids and carbonic acid
    co2 + H20 = H2CO3 <=> H+ + HC03-
  163. location of phosphate buffer?
    only inside cell
  164. what buffer systems happen inside and outside cells?
  165. in hemoglobin buffer system what is relationship of CL- and HCO3-?
    CL- swapped for HCO3-
  166. respiratory compensation
    • lungs help regulate pH through carbonic acid-bicarb buffer system
    • RR changes PCo2
    • acute
  167. renal compensation
    • kidney helps regulate pH by adjusting secretion and reabsorb H+ and bicarbonate
    • chronic
  168. what happens with RR if acidic? basic?
    • if acidic RR increases
    • basic RR decreases
  169. respiratory acid base disorders
    resp system causing problem results in rise or fall of CO2 in ECF
  170. metabolic acid base disorders
    • generation of organic or fixed acid (exercise, diabetes, vomit)
    • anything affecting concentration of bicarbonate
  171. compensation happening in respiratory acidosis?
    • renal compensation which increases plasma bicarbonate
    • (hypoventilation, COPD, asthma, paralysis, pneumonia pneumothorax)
  172. compensation happening in metabolic acidosis?
    • respiratory compensation- decreases CO2 and decrease in bicarbonate
    • renal compensation increaseas bicarbonate
  173. what is acidosis /alkalosis?
    • acidosis- decreased neuro function
    • alkalosis- spontaneous neural firing
  174. compensation during respiratory alkalosis?
    • renal compensation decreases plasma bicarbonate
    • hyperventilation
  175. compensation during metabolic alkalosis?
    • respiratory compensation increases CO2
    • renal compensation decreases bicarbonate
  176. how to test for imbalances in acid base/electrolyte?
    • 1) test pH if normal then electrolyte problem if not normal then look at acid base imbalances
    • 2) if acid base problem based on low or high pH then check CO2 levels for respiratory problem

    • if pH acidic and CO2 high = respiratory acidosis (resp system problem)
    • if pH acidic and CO2 low = metabolic acidosis (other body problem)

    • 3) look at pCO2
    • 4) look at bicarbonate- this measures renal compensation
    • 5) anion gap
  177. increased anion gap means what?
    decreased means ?
    • increase in gap- increase in acids
    • normal to decrease in gap- loss of bases or bicarbonate most common r/t to diarrhea
Card Set
All about Fluids, Electrolytes, Acids and Bases