Allophones (and diacritics) for allophonic variation in PLACE OF ARTICULATION

  1. Transcription of an unfamiliar sound system
    Impressionistic transcription
  2. [X˖]

    e.g. key [k̟i], cot [kɑt]
    Advanced consonant place:

    • Mark a velar next to a high front vowel;
    • Or any velar that sounds atypically far front
  3. [X-]

    Retracted consonant place
  4. [X̙]

    e.g. pad [pæd], pal [pæ̙l]
    Retracted vowel place:

    vowels tend to be backed before /l/
  5. [X̘]

    e.g. huff [hʌf], shush [ʃʌ̘ʃ]
    Advanced vowel place:

    vowels may be fronted near an alveolar or postalveolar consonant, especially between two such consonants
  6. [X̞]

    e.g. Leon, [li̞ɑn]
    Lowered vowel place:

    A high vowel before a low vowel may undergo lowering in connected speech
  7. [Xʷ]

    Labialized place:

    Before a labial glide, t/d, s/z, and k/g become rounded: quick [kʷwɪk]

    Rounding also occurs before a [+round] vowel: tune [tʷun]
  8. [Xl]

    Lateralized place:

    Airstream does not flow down groove in center of tongue but instead flows over sides of tongue.

    Lateralized fricatives:

    • [ɬ ] (voiceless)
    • [ɮ] (voiced)
  9. [X̪]

    e.g. ninth [naɪn̪θ]
    Dentalized place:

    Sounds with an alveolar place of articulation (nasal /n/, oral /t/, /d/, liquid /l/) typically take on a dental place of articulation before the interdental fricatives /θ, ð/.

    Assimilation is usually regressive, but dental place can also spread from a preceding interdental (across a word boundary) e.g. with Terry [wɪθt̪ɛrɪ]

    • The labiodental sounds /f/ and /v/ can change the
    • place of articulation of a preceding nasal (/m, n/): [kʌm̪ fɚt]

    • Dentalized /s/ and /z/ (tongue tip just
    • behind upper incisors) is informally called a frontal lisp.
  10. ɫ


    describes an /l/ that is produced with a more posterior (velar) region of constriction.
  11. [S]

    Whistled /s/:

    • A whistled fricative “occurs when the apex of the tongue directly contacts the back of the upper
    • central incisors.”

    Informally called dental lisp.
Card Set
Allophones (and diacritics) for allophonic variation in PLACE OF ARTICULATION
IPA diacritics to mark allophonic variation in place of articulation