PNS Exam 3

  1. Review: "SA-VE VA, SA-VE VA-SE"
    • Add 3 S's, & 4 G's.
    • 251-5303.
    • Add 7, 9, 10 to the middle rows.
    • Finish the ends.

    • SSA: vision, hearing, balance.
    • SVE: chewing, facial expression, & throat muscles.
    • SVA: smell, taste.
    • GSA: sensation from face & ears.
    • GVE:
    • GVA: chemo & baroreceptors.
    • GSE: moves eyes & tongue.
  2. I: Olfactory.
    II: Optic.
    III: Occulomotor.
    IV: Trochlear.
    V: Trigeminal.
    VI: Abducens.
    VII: Facial.
    VIII: Auditory (Vestibulocochlear).
    IX: Glassopharyngeal.
    X: Vagus.
    XI: Spinal Accessory.
    XII: Hypoglossal.
    • Some
    • Say
    • Marry
    • Money
    • But
    • My
    • Brother
    • Says
    • Big
    • Boobs
    • Matter
    • Most
    • "Rest & Digest"
    • "Visceral N.S."
    • "Cranial Sacral System"
    • -Long preganglionic fibers.
    • -Short postganglionic fibers because the ganglia are close to the target.
  4. Occulomotor N (III):
    • -Innervates ciliary muscles.
    • -Constricts pupils.
    • -Ciliary ganglia: postganglionic.
    • -Edinger Westphal Nucleus: preganglionic... GVE.
  5. Facial N (VII):
    • Pterygopalatine ganglia: postganglionic.
    • Superior salivatory ganglia: preganglionic.

    • Pterygopalatine ganglia:
    • -Innervates: Lacrimal Gland.

    • Submandibular ganglia:
    • -Innervates: submandibular gland & sublingual gland.
  6. Vagus N (X):
    • Dorsal motor nucleus of Vagus: parasympathetic innervation to visceral organs.
    • -Terminal ganglia of organs: respiratory, digestive, heart, liver, kidney.
    • "Fight or Flight"
    • "Thoracolumbar" (T1-L3).
    • Uses energy.
    • Regulates blood vessels.
    • Dorsal rami only have postganglionic fibers.
    • -Short pregang.
    • -Long postgang.
  8. Where are preganglionic cells located in the sympathetic N.S?
    The lateral horn (T1-L2ish).
  9. Ganglion impar:
    • End of paravertebral ganglion.
    • Where the two sides of sympathetic ganglia join near the coccyx.
  10. Rami communicantes:
    • White: myelenated, pregang, BIG.
    • Gray: unmyelenated, postgang.
  11. Splanchnic Nerves: associated with collateral ganglia.
    "Pre-vertebral ganglia."
    • Greater: T5-9.
    • -To celiac ganglia.
    • Lesser: (T9) T10-T11... from ventral levels.
    • -To superior mesenteric ganglia.
    • Least: T12.
    • -To inferior mesenteric ganglia.
    • Lumbar: L1-L3.
    • -Creates hypogastric plexus.
  12. Transmitters:
    • Preganglionic: cholinergic (Ach).
    • Postganglionic:
    • -Sympathetic: noradrenergic (NorEpi).
    • -Parasympathetic: cholinergic (Ach).
  13. Adrenal medulla:
    • Derived from neural crest cells (along with the rest of the PNS).
    • Innervated by pelvic splanchnic nerves.
    • Secretes transmitters into the blood stream.
  14. Pain afferents:
    • Pure visceral: where the organ hurts.
    • Referred visceral: organ hurts as well as areas of the body that share the same spinal nerve.
    • Viscerosomatic: pain in muscle overlying inflammation.
  15. Cranial Nerves:
    • Olfactory Nerve (I): from tenencephalon.
    • Optic Nerve (II): from diencephalon.
    • Abducens Nerve (VI): extraocclear nerve from pons (pontopyramidal junction).

    • Pontomedullary junction: Facial (VII) & Vestibulocochlear (VIII).
    • Behind olive: Glassopharyngeal (IX), Vagus (X), Spinal Accessory (XI).
    • Between olive & pyramid: Hypoglossal (XII).
  16. What do SVA fibers allow us to do?
    (functional component)
    Smell & taste.
  17. "Special" means that the structures were derived from where?
    Pharyngeal (brachial) arches.
  18. Olfactory system:
    • Differs from other sensory systems.
    • Nontropographical.
    • Receptors are epithelia.
    • Replaced every 2 months (1-3 months).
    • Found on superior concha & superior part of septum.
    • Ethmoid bones form wall.
    • Bowman's gland secretes mucus to allow for diffusion of chemicals.
  19. The olfactory filum goes through which structure?
    Cribiform plate.
  20. What is the main output of the olfactory bulb?
    Mitral cells.
  21. What types of axons make up the olfactory tract?
    Mitral cell axons.
  22. What is the white part of the eye?
    • The sclera.
    • Serves as attachment site for muscles.
    • In the outermost layer along with the cornea.
  23. The optic disc is also known as what?
    • Blind spot.
    • Where the axons of ganglion cells come together to form the optic nerve.
  24. Do rods need light to work?
    • No.
    • Responds to shapes and movement.
    • (cones do need light to work).
  25. What is the name of the area with the heaviest concentration of cones?
    • Fovea centralis.
    • (Most numerous at the middle).
  26. What 3 things is the lateral geniculate body responsible for?
    • 1. Eye movement.
    • 2. Pupillary light reflex.
    • 3. Suprachiasmatic nucleus.
  27. Which nerve is under control of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus & the ciliary ganglion?
    • The occulomotor nerve (CN III).
    • -Pupillary light reflex.
    • -Accomodation (focus) reflex.
  28. Which ganglion controls the pupillary light reflex?
    Cilliary ganglion.
  29. Which nerve exits the brainstem caudal to the inferior colliculus?
    The trochlear nerve (CN IV).
  30. Which nerves exit through the superior orbital fissure?
    The extraocular nerves: occulomotor (III), trochlear (IV), abducens (VI).
Card Set
PNS Exam 3