1. What are the minimum soil depths for permitting a shallow conventional, LPP, and mound system in group I and IV soils?
    • 24/30,
    • 20/20,
    • 18” ss and
    • 12”+ SHWT
  2. Wetlands on farms are regulated by ________?
  3. Natural Resources Conservation Service
  4. How do Division of coastal management representatives determine if a property contains wetlands?
    the plants
  5. A property (or portion of property) contains wetland plants when greater than ______ % of plants are OBL, FACW or FAC
  6. Obligate wetland plants occur in wetlands _____ percent of time
    more than 99%
  7. Facultative wetland plants usually occur in wetland ___ to ____ % of the time
    67 - 99
  8. List two examples of secondary indicators of wetland hydrology
  9. Oxidized rhizosphere in upper 12” of living roots, water stained leaves, soil survey data, FAC neutral test (greater than 50% of dominant non-FAC plants are wetter than FAC)
  10. List two examples of primary indicators of wetland hydrology
  11. Visual observation of inundation,
    • saturation within 6-12”,
    • water marks,
    • drift lines, s
    • ediment deposits,
    • drainage patterns
  12. Name two federal and two state agencies that regulate wetlands
  13. US EPA,
    • Army Corps of Engineers,
    • Natural Resources Conservation Service;
    • NC Division of Water Quality,
    • NC Division of Coastal Management
  14. What is the difference between wetland restoration and wetland creation?
    Wetland restoration is the ones that were wetlands and and wetland creations were not.
  15. List three examples of major anthropogenic (man caused) wetland destruction/alterations
  16. 1) Deforestation/filling/draining for construction
    • 2) Clearing/draining for agriculture
    • 3) Urban stormwater runoff and eutrophication
    • 4) Wastewater loading and eutrophication
  17. List four common wetland communities in NC
    • bottomland hardwood forest,
    • swap forest,
    • shrub forest
    • marshes
  18. What % of the US population lives in coastal areas?
  19. List 4 reasons wetlands are important?
    • rare species habitat
    • tourism
    • remove nutrients
    • carbon
    • Stores flood waters
  20. Wetlands account for what % of land area in lower 48 states, what % of NC?
    • 5%
    • 15%
  21. Wetlands must have what three things:
    Soil, Wetland Hydrology, Wetland vegetation
  22. Low chroma colors are indicative of what limiting condition?
    Seasonal High Water Table
  23. What are two unsuitable landscape positions
    Wetlands, Sloap more than 65%, depressions
  24. List two soil types for each soil group
    • Sand, Loamy Sand
    • Sandy Loam, Loam
    • Sandy Clay Loam, Silt, Silty Clay Loam
    • Clay, Silty Clay
  25. How far must on-site systems be from a stream, swimming pool, and property line?
    • 50 to 100 to a stream,
    • 15 to a pool
    • 10 to a property line
  26. If the soil in question 19 was a group IV instead of group III and was 20” deep, what system would you recommend and why?
    LPP because if it was a group 4 instead of a group 3, the space needed for the .1 loading rate would be massive
  27. If the limiting condition for the site in question 18 was 20” what other option would you have, and would you recommend it - why/why not?
    you could have an LPP system because it would lower the space needed, however LPP needs to be maintained so it can become expensive
  28. If you perform a soil evaluation and determine that the limiting condition is 19”, and the soil is a group III, what system type and application rate would you suggest?
    • Mound
    • .3ltlr
  29. You just graduated and are now working with a county health department ( I told you someone in class would do this), you just completed a soil evaluation for a permit applicant. The soil was 36” deep to low chroma colors and the soil between 24” and 36” would produce a ribbon 2.5” long, and had a smooth feel. What texture and soil group was this sample?
    Silty Clay group 4
  30. If you have a soil with a 0.5 g/d/ft2 LTAR and a 3 BR house, how much FT2 will a conventional system require? What if you use a chamber?
    720 ft^2

    25% reduction so multiply by 75%

  31. What are the benefits of using an LPP?
    better distribution, 25-30% less space, soil depth less than usual
  32. What are the benefit of using a chamber and polystyrene relative to a conventional?
    25% reducion in space, easier to install
  33. List 4 types of septic systems?
    LPP, Shallow Conventional, Mound, Conventional
  34. What is the design flow for a 2 BR, 3 BR and 4 BR?
    240, 360, 480
  35. What does LTAR stand for?
    Long Term Loading Rate
  36. ______ clays are suitable for on-site systems, while ______ clays are unsuitable
    Kaolonitic, montmorillonitic
  37. three examples of unsuitable soil structure
    • Angular blocky
    • Massive
    • Prismatic
  38. What method is used in the field to determine soil partical size distribution and soil group status?
    texture by feel
  39. two physical, chemical and biological treatment mechanisms in soil
    • physical - Filtration, dispursion
    • Chemical- evaporation, cat ion exchange
    • Biological - Nitrification, Oxidation
  40. List the four major components of an on-site wastewater systems and describe what each component does
  41. 1) Septic tank- settling tank, removes solids, dissipates energy, digests organic matter, converts ON to NH4
    • 2) Distribution device- distributes wastewater to drainfield trenches
    • 3) Drainfield trenches- stores wastewater until wastewater infiltrates soil
    • 4) Soil- provides physical, chemical and biological treatment of wastewater
  42. What are average septic effluent concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus and fecal coliform?
    • 26-75 - total nitrogen
    • 6-12 - total p
    • 10^8 - fecal coliform
  43. How many on-site systems are installed each year?
    30,000 to 40,000
  44. What % of the US and NC population uses on-site wastewater systems?
    • US= 25-30%
    • NC= 50%
Card Set