Pertaining to the cardiac (heart) and respiratory (lung) systems
producing energy for physical activity with oxygen
Producing energy for physical activity without oxygen
What is Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)?
the chemical compound that is the immdediate source of energy for physical activity
What is needed for muscular contractiong/function to CONTINUE?
What are the 4 Aerobic Exercise Program Principles?
To improve a physiological system, you must stress or challenge that system beyond its normal limits
your aerobic exercise program must be specifically related to your overall exercise objectives
you should evaluate your fitness level and you exercise goals on a personal level, rather than comparing youself to others
What is reversibility
when you stop overloading your aerobic system, your aerobic fitness level will, over time, return to its pre-exercise level
What are the 4 components that make up the FITT principle?
- Time and
Frequency is one ocmponent of an exercise program, what does it refer to?
the number of exercise sessions per week
Intensity is one component of an exercise program, what does it refer to?
the difficulty or stress levels of each exercise session
Time is one component of an exercise program, what does it refer to?
the duration of each exercise session
Type is one component of an exercise program, what does it refer to?
the type of exercise during each exercise session (e.g. anaerobic or aerobic)
The American College of Sports Medicine has released Exercise Guidelines. What are the THRESHOLD limits of Frequency, Intensity and Time of the exercise?
- Frequency: 3 days per week
- Intensity: 55% of max HR, or 12 on the RPE scale
- Time: 20min (can be accumulated)
The American College of Sports Medicine has released Exercise Guidelines. What are the UPPER (MAXIMUM) limits of Frequency, Intensity and Time of the exercise?
- Frequency: 5days per week
- Intensity: 90% max HR or 16 on the RPE scale
- Time: 60 min (can be accumulated in 10min blocks)
Why is the RPE scale superior over using HR to prescribe exercise?
- Some patients can take medication that affect HR.
- Important when no equipment is available (e.g. HR monitors)
Rpe is often used in which type of clinical settings?
What is the name of the resistance training scale, and what number range does it use?
- OMNI-resistance exercise scale or perceived exertion.
- 0 (extremely easy) - 10 (extremely hard)
Session RPE scale differs to BORGs RPE in that the rating is scaled from ___ to ___ instead of....?
0-10 instead of 6-20
"The complete training program" should encorporate 5 different elements, what are they?
- warm-up and strethcing
- cardiorespiratory endurance exercise
- cool-down and stretching
- flexibility activities
- strength/power activites
give some examples of cardiorespiratory activities
- cycling etc.
True or false, three 10 minute workouts of moderate activity has nearly the same efffect on health as one 30-min workout at the same effort.
give an alternative to "planned" workouts to keep physically active
you can attain health benefits just by living an active lifestyle, so long as your "unstructured" activity is at least equivalent to any "structured" workout that you might plan
What is strength?
the ability of a muscle to produce force, often represented by the 1rep max
What is muscular endurance?
a muscle's ability to produce force over and over again
what is Power?
the amount of work performed in a given amount of time, often considered the product of strength and speed
name the 5 benefits of strength training
- Improved physical performance in sport, recreational ativities and every day activites
- Protection from injury
- Increased resting metabolic RATE
- maintenance of Bone mineral density
- improved sense of well-being
What are the four principles of building strength?
What is the term given that describes an increase in muscle size
What is anabolic exercise?
increasing in size (i.e strength training)
What are the 7 design recommendations for anabolic exercise programs
- Adequate intensity
- Exercise selection for functional improvement
- include explosive movements?
- Sufficient Recovery
- Anabolic exercise throughout life
How is progression of a training program best achieved?
With appropriate program design
What is the key factor that is needed for someone to continue and improve with their training program?
Initially, what kind of volume and intensity need to be prescribed in an anabolic exercise program?
low intensity and low volume to start off with
Studies indicate the older adults require sufficient intensity and volume of training to continue to:
D) all of the above
What is periodization?
refers to how we can ary the training program i.e. how do we manipulate volume and intensity
Variation appears to be important for which type of populations who are using anabolic exercise?
C) all populations
Which kind of exercise enviornment is predicted to elicit the greatest changes in VO2max?
A) group with high intensity
What is a MET?
the ratio of the metabolic rate during exercise and the metabolic rate at rest
what are the two types of units that exercise intensity is typically measured in?
kcal per minute of activity or METs
Moderate-intensity activites, such as brisk walking are those that burn ______kcal/min.
Moderate-intesity activites, such as brisk walking, are those that burn 3.5-7.0kcal/min - what is the Metabolic equivalent of this?
How many kcal/min does vigorous activites, such as running, burn?
>7 kcal/min or >6 METs
What kind of intensity should be performed on most, if not all days of the week for health benefits?
If someone was to exercise for 20min on three days each week, what kind of intensity would they have to work at to meet the physical activity guidelines prescribed by ACSM?
what are the two main effects of exercise on diabetes?
- maintain energy/substrate balance
- increase GLUT-4 and insulin response and production
what are the two main parts of Darwin's evolution theory?
- those that can't adapt would have died off
- those that evolved beneficial attributes survived
what are the 3 main effects of aging?
- decrease in VO2max
- Increased risk of injuries
in 30 years, how many more elderly people will contribute to the population, and why is this?
a doubling effect due to increased lifespan and decreasing birth rates
what are the 4 possible causes of aging?
- reduced DNA coping
- decrease in mRNA
- reduced oxidative enzymes
- reduced protein synthesis
aging is caused by four factors; reduced DNA copying, decreased mRNA, reduced oxidative enzymes and reduced protein synthesis. All these factors lead to what?
a decrease in ATP production which indirectly leads to chronic diseases
what percentage of austalian children are classified as obese?
There is strong evidence that suggests that 80% of obese children will become.....?
Is there a defined optimal level of exercise prescribed for children?
How much exercise should children generally do?
30mins a day on most days of the week
It is recommended that children should participate in aerobic and weight training regimes, but what should also be included into a child's physical activity?
skill based activities
what are the 6 exercise programming principles?
- 1. progressive overload
- 2. specificity
- 3. individuality
- 4. variation
- 5. reversibility
- 6. maitainance.
What are the 3 commonly used periodisation models (usually in resistance training)
- 1. classic strength and power model
- 2. reverse linear model
- 3. undulating periodisation model
How can overload be achieved
by increasing intensity or frequency
Does it take less, more, or the same amount of work to maintain a certain level of strength/muscle mass that someone has reached?
What are the best 4 ways to monitor exercise intenisity
- lactate threshold
the systematic manipulation of the acute variables of training over a period of time
What are the main characteristics of a CLASSIC PERIODISATION MODEL in terms of
-order of training
- ORDER: hypertrophy, strength/power, peaking, active rest
- VOLUME: high to low
- INTENSITY: medium then raised during the peak/major competition phase and then drops for rest
- SKILL TRAINING: low to high - peaks at competition date
What are the main characteristics of a REVERSE LINEAR MODEL in terms of
-order of training
- ORDER: power, strength, hypertrophy
- VOLUME: low to high
- INTENSITY: very high- high -low
- VOLUME: low - moderate - high
In which phase of periodisation would you expect to see the most sets/reps?
What are the main characteristics of an UNDULATING PERIODISATION PROGRAM
it changes all the time!
what kind of sports are suited to the undulating periodisation plan
individual sports such as martial arts etc
what are the 5 areas that physical activity promotes health in the most in children?
- 1. motor skills
- 2. physical health
- 3. psychological development
- 4. spiritual well-being
- 5. social relationships
what are the 6 potential benefits from physical activity for obese children?
- 1. greater strength and endurance
- 2. enhanced bone formation
- 3. reduced anxiety and stress
- 4. improved self-esteem
- 5. weight management
- 6. minimization of heart disease risk