1. RDA is
    the daily intake that meets the needs of almost all healthy individuals in a specified group
  2. EAR is
    the basis for developing the RDA, is the intake that meets the needs of half of the individuals in the reference population
  3. AI is
    a guideline used when not enough scientific data are available to establish an RDA
  4. UL is
    a new guideline that sets the maximum nutrient intake that is unlikely to pose a risk of toxicity in healthy individuals
  5. Early observations- Vitamins were
    largely discovered while searching for cures for classic diseases to be associated with dietary deficiences.
  6. Scurvy is
    a hemorrhagic disease characterized by bleeding in joints and other tissues and by the breakdown of fragile capillaries under normal BP.
  7. Early Animal Experiments
    1906- Dr. Frederich Hopkins of Cambridge University, group of rats a synthetic mixture of protein, fat, carbohydrate, mineral salts and water. All became ill and died.
  8. Era of Vitamin Discovery
    Most discovered during first half of 1900s-vitamin-vital amine...
  9. Vitamin-2 definitions
    • 1. It must be a vital, organic substance that is not a carb, fat, or protein and must be necessary in only extremely small amts.
    • 2. It cannot be manufactured by the body in sufficient quantities to sustain life, so it must be supplied by the diet.
  10. Functions of Vitamins
    • 1. components of coenzymes
    • 2. antioxidants
    • 3. hormones that affect gene expression
    • 4. a component of cell membranes
    • 5. a component of the light sensitive rhodopsin molecule in the the eyes Vit.A
  11. Collagen is
    gluelike in its capacity to add tensile strength to body structures.
  12. Ascorbic
    means without scurvy
  13. Fat Soluble Vitamins is
    intestinal cells absorb fat soluble vitamins with fat and incorporate both the fat and fat soluble vitamins into chylomicrons
  14. Water soluble Vitamins is
    intestinal cells easily absorb water soluble vitamins.
  15. Vitamin A (Retinol) - Fat Soluble Vitamins
    • Functions in the body
    • a. vision
    • b. tissue strength and immunity- help maintain healthy epithelial tissue
    • c. growth- retinoic acid and retinol
  16. Vitamin A Requirements
    • 1. preformed A or provitamin A
    • 2. its storage in the body
  17. Vitamin A- Food Forms and Units of Measure
    • 1. preformed vitamin A or retinol is the active vitamin found in foods derived from animals.
    • 2. Provitamin A or beta carotene, is a pigment in yellow, orange, and deep green fruits or vegetables that the human body can convert to retinol.
  18. Retinol is
    the chemical name of Vitmain A.
  19. Carotenoids is
    organic pigments found in the plant
  20. Carotene is
    a group name for three red and yellow pigments found in dark green and yellow vegetables and fruit.
  21. Body Storage- Liver
    • can store large amts of retinol.
    • 1. healthy- liver stores more than 50% of ingested retinol and contains approx. 90% of the bodys total store.
  22. Deficiency Disease- Adequate Vitamin A
    • 1. Xerosis - itching, burning and red inflamed eyelids
    • 2. Xerophthalmia or blindess caused by severe
  23. Hypervitaminosis is
    condition created by ecessive vitamin a intake, includes joint pain, thickening of long bones, loss of hair, and jaundice.
  24. Vitamin A- Food Source
    fish liver oils, egg yolk, butter and cream
  25. Retinol is
    unstable when exposed to heat and oxygen.
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