dental anatomy

  1. what is the contact relationship of the teeth?
    between the maxillary and the mandibular teeth when they are closed
  2. what can occlusal trauma cause?
    • recession
    • bone loss
  3. what can you do for reversible occlusal trauma?
    • bite guard
    • ortho
  4. what happens when occlusal trauma becomes irreversible
    tooth loss
  5. what is the ideal occlusion?
    • front teeth aligned
    • mesial buccal cusp of maxillary 1st molar with the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar
  6. it is _____ to have the ideal occlusion naturally
  7. if your first molars are missing what do you look at to check occlusion?
  8. where should the canines be for ideal occlusion?
    maxillary canine should be in between the 1st premolar and canine of the mandible
  9. what is centric occlusion?
    natural bite
  10. how would the loss of a tooth affect the occlusion?
    throw off the normal bite
  11. what is a natural horizontal overhang of the maxillary arch over the mandibular arch?
  12. what is the normal measurement for an overject?
    1 or 2 mm
  13. is an overjet more common in males or females?
    neither-equally distributed
  14. how is an overjet measured?
    from the facial of the mandibular teeth to the lingual of the maxillary incisors (insides space)
  15. what is the normal amount of vertical overlap that allwos for contact between the posterior teeth during mastication?
  16. is an overbite more common in males or females
  17. where do you measure an overbite?
    measure from where the mandibular incisors meet the maxillary incisors (incisal 3rd)
  18. how many contact points are there?
    132 (normally)
  19. how are the degrees of an overbite measured?
    • normal
    • moderate
    • deep impinging
  20. a deep impinging overbite goes into the _____ _____ of the tooth
    cervical 3rd
  21. what are the 3 areas of interdigitation during centric occlusion
    • height of cusp contour
    • marginal ridges
    • central fossae
  22. what are cusps that function during centric occlusion
    supporting cusps
  23. what is used to check centric stops after restoration?
    articulating paper
  24. what are two types of wear of dentition?
    • attrition- tooth on tooth wearing
    • wear facets- smooth surface, flat incisal and buccal is common
  25. t/f the end point of closure of the mandible is a natural position
    false-not natural clinician has to put patient into this position
  26. what does the additional slide do for the doctor?
    lets him know if the jaws are sliding too much or in wrong direction
  27. what is the side to which the mandible has been moved called?
    working side
  28. what is the side of the arch opposite to the working side during lateral occlusion called?
    balance side
  29. what evaluation is made by moving the mandible either to the right or to the left until the canines on that side are in a cusp to cusp relationship?
    lateral occlusion
  30. what is it called when the canine is the only tooth in function during lateral occlusion check?
    canine rise
  31. what is it called when the entire posterior quadrant functions during lateral occlusion because of all opposite arch posterior teeth are sharing the occlusal stress during function?
    group function
  32. if the teeth are in contact on the balancing side what is it called?
    balancing interference
  33. how should the anterior teeth touch during protrusive occlusion
    all eight of the most anterior teeth of both arches are normally in contact as the mandible undergoes protrusion
  34. what is occlusal disharmony with protrusive occlusion?
    when one or two assume the stress of protrusion
  35. what is the mandibular resting state?
    2 or 3 mm between maxillary and mandible
  36. what is the freeway space? (what is another name for it)
    • the space between the arches when the mandible is at rest
    • interocclusal clearnace
  37. what is defined as lack of ideal form
  38. what % of kids have crowding?
  39. what is the system for classifying malocclusion?
    Angle's classification of malocclusion
  40. what are two things that angle's classification system doesn't describe?
    • lateral or protrusive discrepancies
    • primary, mixed dentitions
  41. which calss is it when the MB cusp of max 1st molar occludes with the MB groove of the mand 1st but with crowding of the anterior?
    class I
  42. what is the canine relation for class I malocclusion?
    max perm canine occludes with distal half of mand canine and mesial half of mand 1st premolar
  43. is class I mesognathic retrognathic or prognathic?
  44. what is mesognathic
    facial profile in centric occlusion has slightly protruded jaws and gives the facial outline a relatively flat appearance or straight profile
  45. what kind of protrusive or retrusive discrepancies can class I have?
    • overbite
    • open bite
    • end to end bite
    • cross bite
  46. what class is it when the MB cusp of the max 1st molar is mesial to the MB groove of the mandibular 1st molar?
    class II
  47. what is the canine relation for class II malocclusion?
    mesial surface of max canine is mesial to the distal surface of the mand canine by at least the width of a premolar
  48. if the MB cusp of max 1st molar is mesial to the MB groove of the mand 1st molar but it is smaller than the size of a premolar what is the classification?
  49. how far mesial must the MB cups of max 1st molar be to the MB groove of the man 1st molar to be a class II?
    size of a premolar
  50. is class II mesognathic, retrognathic or prognathic?
  51. what is retrognathic?
    facial profile shows a protruding upper lip or a recessive mandible and chin (convex profile)
  52. what is class II division I
    maxillary anteriors protrude facially from the mandibular anteriors
  53. what is class II division II
    molars are in the same position but rather than having protrusive maxillary anteriors the maxillary central incisors are either upright or retruded ( centrals are flared out or lingually inclined)
  54. is class II distocluison or mesioclusion?
  55. t/f distoclusion means the lower jaw is distal to the upper jaw
  56. t/f mesioclusion means the lower jaw is mesial to the upper jaw
  57. is class III distoclusion or mesioclusion?
  58. which class is the MB cusp of max 1st molar distally to the MB groove of the mand 1st molar?
    class III
  59. what is the canine relation of class III
    surface of mandibular canine is mesial to the mesial surface of the max canine by at least the width of a premolar
  60. is class III mesognathic, retrognathic or prognathic?
  61. what is prognathic?
    the facial profile usually shows a rather prominent mandible and possible a normal or even retrusive maxilla thus a concave profile
  62. what is the terminal plane?
    ideal molar occlusion is when distal surfaces are flush
  63. what is flush terminal plane
    primary maxillary and mandibular second molars are in an end to end relationship
  64. what is a mesial step
    primary mandibular second molar is mesial to the maxillary molar
  65. what is a distal step
    primary mandibular second molar is distal to the maxillary second molar
  66. what is the canine relationship for primary occlusion?
    same as permanent dentition
  67. what is a parafunctional habit?
    • clenching
    • bruxism
    • thumb sucking
    • tongue thrust
  68. what is defined as the movements of the mandible that are not within the normal range of motion associated with mastication, speech or respiratory movements?
    parafunctional habits
  69. what are the general characteristics of parpafunctional habits
    • subconscious
    • retraining
    • masseter muscles
    • stress
    • treatment
  70. what happens to the masseter muscles with a parafunctional habit?
    big and extended
  71. what is a horizontal malocclusions?
    class II or III
  72. what is a vertical malocclusion?
    open bite or overbite
  73. what is transverse malocclusion
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dental anatomy