Biology Test 3

  1. Mucosa
    • innermost tissue layer
    • all nutrients must cross it to enter the blood
  2. submucosa
    layer of connective tissue containing blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves.
  3. muscularis
    2 or 3 layers of smooth muscles responsible for mvoement in GI tract
  4. serosa
    • outermost layer of the GI tract wall
    • connective tissue that surrounds and protects other layers
  5. Gastrointestinal tract layers
    Image Upload 1
  6. Digestive System Processes
    1) Mechanical Processing and Movement
    chewing, mixing, and propelling
  7. Digestive System Processes
    2) Secretion
    fluid, digestive enzymes, hormones, bile, acid, alkali, mucus are secreted into the GI Tract.
  8. Digestive System Processes´╗┐
    3) Digestion
    contents of lumen are broken down into the smallest absorbable units
  9. Digestive System Processes
    4) Absorption
    through mucosa into blood or lymph vessels
  10. Digestive System Processes
    5) Elimination
    Undigested material is eliminated form the body
  11. bolus
    food chewed into a mass
  12. peristalsis
    • propels food down the GI tract by wave like muscle contractions
    • mainly in esophagus
    • Image Upload 2
  13. segmentation
    • mixes food by muscles contracting and relaxing
    • mainly in small intestine
    • Image Upload 3
  14. The mouth
    • begins digestion
    • -teeth
    • - tongue
    • - saliva
  15. swallowing
    • delivers food to stomach
    • voluntary phase: tongue pushes bolus of food into pharynx
    • involuntary phase: receptors in pharynx stimulated by presence of food
  16. epiglottis
    closes opening to trachea
  17. pharynx
    • common passage way for air, liquid, and food
    • participates in swallowing
  18. esophagus
    • connects pharynx to stomach
    • mix of smooth and skeletal muscles
  19. hiatal hernia
    when the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm
  20. stomach
    • food storage
    • digestion
    • regulates food flow
    • does not absorb nutrients
  21. chyme
    blended food
  22. How long does it take to empty stomach?
    2-6 hours
  23. Stomach wall
    Image Upload 4
  24. small intestine
    • digestion: adds enzymes and bile
    • breaksdown carbohydrates, protiens and lipids
    • 95% of absorption happens here
  25. How long is the small intestine?
    about 11 feet
  26. duodenum
    area of most digestion
  27. mucosa adaptations to the small intestine
    folds covered with villi and microvilli give more surface area
  28. villi of small intestie
    contain blood and lacteal capillaries, which take in small water soluble nutrients and lipids, respectivly.
  29. pancreas
    secretes digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate
  30. liver
    produces bile and emulsifies fats
  31. hepatic protal system
    carries nutirent rich blood from the digestive tract for processing (in liver)
  32. gallbladder
    • stores bile
    • secretions are sent to the duodenum
  33. How long is the large intestine?
    5 feet
  34. Large intestine
    • absorbs some nutrients and water
    • eliminates waste
    • NO digestion
  35. Colons
    Image Upload 5
  36. feces
    indigestible material, bacteria
  37. defecation reflex
    due to stretch as feces enter the rectum
  38. diarrhea
    • often due to bacteria infection
    • too little water is absorbed
  39. constipation
    waste remains too long in th large intestine causeing too much water to be absorbed
  40. lactose intolerance
    • difficulty in digesting lactose in milk products
    • Doug
  41. diverticulosis
    • mucosa sacs protrude through layers of the large intestine
    • may become inflamed or infected
  42. polyps
    • non cancerous growth from colon mucosa
    • ususally removed because they can become cancerous over time, ie. colon cancer
  43. hepatitis
    • inflammation of the liver
    • Mom's friend
  44. gallstones
    too much cholesterol in bile
  45. peptic ulcers
    open sores in the stomach or small intestine
  46. crohn's disease
    • inflammatory disorder that damages the intestinal lining
    • Lauren
  47. irritable bowel syndrome
    • abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation
    • effects smooth muscle's ability to move feces through colon
    • Becky
  48. anorexia
    • excessive dieting and exercise leads to lower weight than the ideal
    • Paris Hilton
  49. bulimia
    • binge and purge
    • damage teeth, rupture stomach
    • Lindsy Lohan
  50. urinary system
    regulates: water levels, nitrogenous and other solute waste
  51. kidneys
    principle organ; filters blood to produce urine
  52. renal cortex
    outside layer of the kidney
  53. renal medulla
    pyramid shaped muscles; inner layer of kidney
  54. renal pelvis
    where urin collects after it is formed
  55. ureters
    transprot urine to the bladder by peristalsis
  56. urinary bladder
    stores urine
  57. how much urine can the bladder hold?
  58. urethra
    carries urine from body; two sphincters
  59. nephrons
    • funcitonal unit that produces urine
    • 1 million per kidney
  60. tubules
    filter fluid and reabsorb needed substances
  61. bowman's / glomerular capsule
    surrounds a network of capillaries
  62. glomerulus
    blood supply of the nephron; contained inside bowman's capsule
  63. glomerular filtration
    • based on pressure difference
    • filters water, and small solutes into glomerular capsule
    • filtrate is formed
  64. tubular reabsorption
    returns most of the water and needed solutes back to the blood
  65. tubular secretion proximal tubules
    removes other substances form blood back to tubules
  66. Purpose of tubular secretion in proximal tubules
    • regulation of chemical levels in body
    • excretion of harmful chemicals
  67. what is secreted?
    • penicillin
    • cocaine
    • mary jane
    • pesticides
    • preservatives
    • H ions
    • ammonium
  68. dilute urine
    excreting excess water when Anti-diuretic hormone is absent and reabsorption of salt without reabsorption of water
  69. concentrated urine
    conserving water due to increased anti-diuretic hormone
  70. micturition reflex
    as bladder fills, stretching occurs, and sphincters come into play
  71. kidney stones
    • minerals in urine crystallize in renal pelvis
    • can be surgically removed or crushed with ultrasonic shock waves
  72. Urinary Tract Infection
    presence of microbes in urine or an infection in any part of the urinary system
  73. acute and chronic renal failure
    conditions that impair kidney functions temporarily
  74. scrotum
    sac, regulates temperature of testes
  75. testes
    produce sperm and testosterone
  76. penis
    • conveys urine and sperm
    • erectile tissue; functions in sexual intercourse
  77. seminal vesicles
    secretes fructose, seminal fluid
  78. prostate gland
    secretes watery alkaline fluid; neutralizes acidic vagina
  79. bulbourethral gland
    • secretes lubricating mucus
    • cleanses urethra
  80. ovaries
    • release eggs
    • secrete estrogen and progesterone
  81. eggs are also known as...
    an oocytes
  82. oviduct is also known as
    • fallopian tube
    • uterine tube
  83. fallopian tube
    • fringed ends to receive egg
    • is not connected to ovary
  84. uterus
    the hallow, pear-shaped organ where fertilized egg grows and develops
  85. endometrium
    • innermost layer of uterus
    • site where fertilized egg implants
    • sloughs off during menstrual flow
  86. myometrium
    • smooth muscle
    • expands during pregnancy
    • constricts during labor
  87. cervix
    • opening to the uterus
    • permits sperm to enter the uterus
    • allows the fetus to exit during birth
  88. vagina
    • organ of sexual intercourse
    • birth canal
  89. external genitalia
    vulva including labia majora and labia minora
  90. clitoris
    female erectile tissue
  91. Breasts include
    • mammary gland
    • 100s of milk producing lobules; ducts; adipose tissue
    • lactation
  92. mammary glands
    undergo changes due to hormones at puberty, during and after pregnancy
  93. lactation
    milk production, estrogen and progesterone influence
  94. How is Sperm made?
    in seminiferous tubules it undergoes cell division by mitosis and meosis
  95. Sperm have how many chromosomes
    • 23 (N)
    • half than normal cells
  96. sequence of sperm development
    • Spermatogonia 2N
    • primary spermatocyte 2N
    • secondary spermatocyte N
    • sermatids N
    • sperm N
  97. sperm
    • head containing DNA
    • acrosome with enzymes (tip of head)
    • tail with mitochondria
  98. sperm travel
    • to epididymis
    • to vas (ductus) deferens
    • ejaculatory duct
    • urethra
  99. Testosterone
    • made by interstitial/Leydig cells between seminiferous tubules
    • controls growth and function of male reproductive tissues
    • stimulates aggression, sexual behavior and secondary sexual characteristics
  100. GnRH, LH & FSH hormones
    involved in production and secretion of testosterone
  101. Menstrual Cycle
    • every 28 days
    • under hormone control
    • begins at puberty
  102. what two cycles are involved with the menstrual cycle
    • ovarian cycle
    • uterine cycle
  103. how many primary oocytes is a female born with?
    about 1 million, which are stored in the ovary
  104. how many eggs are left come time for puberty for a woman?
    only 300,000 (most are absorbed)
  105. What happens each month to primary oocytes?
    • several begin development
    • usually only 1 completes this process
  106. Ovarian Cycle
    • Immature follicle of 1 oocyte develops, FSH and LH increase
    • zona pellucida around oocyte
    • antrum space develops, some estrogen and progesterone secreted
    • 2 oocyte and polar body produced, follicle matures
    • increased estrogen causes surge of LH, ovulation occurs--> follicle ruptures to realse 2 oocyte
    • corpus luteum formed from follicle
Card Set
Biology Test 3