1. Explain the size of bacteria
    • bacteria are very small compared to cells with a nucleus
    • not as small as viruses, but very tiny
  2. How many bacteria on average are on clean skin?
    • 20 million
    • --->many of the bacteria are good though
  3. What is the evolution/classification of bacteria?
    • very fit- can survive a great deal
    • most numerous organisms on earth
    • most ancient organisms
    • microscopic prokaryotes
    • evolution has yeilded many species adapted to survive where no other organisms can
    • different groups
  4. What are the groups of bacteria and what are they based on?
    • Eubacteria: germs/disease causing bacteria
    • Archaebacteria: good bacteria
    • groups based on structure, physiology, molecular composition, reaction to specific types of stain
  5. Kingdom Eubacteria
  6. What are the three basic shapes of eubacteria?
    • Bacilli: rod-shaped
    • Spirilla: spiral-shaped
    • Cocci: sphere shaped
    • Sperillium: corkscrew shape (extra)
  7. What are the arrangements of the bacteria? And Examples
    • Staphylococci: grape like clusters (ex: common infections such as cuts)
    • Streptococci: in chains (ex: strep throat)
    • Diplo-bacteria: occur in pairs (ex: gonnarrhea)
  8. Know Drawing of bacteria cells. Btw, where is the DNA in a bacteria cell?
    DNA in cytoplasm, no nucleus in bacteria cell
  9. In terms of food, Eubacteria can be....
    • Heterotrophic: eat other things for food
    • Autotrophic: make their own energy using sunlight (however bacteria cells don't have chloroplasts)
    • Chemoautotrophs: get their food/energy from chemicals
  10. In terms of oxygen, Eubacteria can be...
    • Obligate Anaerobes
    • Faculatative Anaerobes
    • Obligate Aerobes
  11. What are Obligate Anaerobes? Examples?
    • Bacteria that will die if they are exposed to oxygen
    • --->ex. Clostridium Tetani- Tetanus
  12. What are Faculatative Anaerobes? Example?
    • Bacteria that can live with or without oxygen
    • --->Escherichia Coli- E Coli
  13. What are Obligate Aerobes? Examples?
    • Bacteria that need Oxygen to live
    • --->ex. Tuberculosis- lives in the lungs
  14. What are the temperature requirements of Eubacteria?
    • Some are thermophillic (like heat)
    • Some prefer an acidic environment
  15. What are pathogenic bacteria?
    disease causing bacteria
  16. Examples of pathogenic bacteria?
    • helicobacter pylori
    • leprocy
  17. What is Helicobacter Pylori?
    • the pathogenic bacteria that causes ulcers
    • ---> stress can increase ulcers, but doesn't cause them
  18. What is Leprocy?
    a bacterial infection that decreases blood flow to the extremities resulting in the deterioration of the toes, ears, nose, and fingers
  19. What are some other bacterial diseases?
    • Botulism (can be gotten from bad canning foods)
    • Cholera: severe diarrhea- get it from bad drinking water
    • Dental Cavities/Carriers
    • Rocky Mountian Spotted Fever- get it from a tick
    • Lyme Disease- can be serious if not treated- get it from tick
    • Salmonella
    • Strep Throat
    • Tuberuclosis
  20. How are some bacteria useful?
    • producing and processing food
    • breaking down dead organic material
    • make unripened cheese like ricotta and gottage by breaking down the protien in milk
  21. What is Gram Negative
    • type of bacteria
    • has a thin peptidoglycin in between 2 bilayers
    • one type of cell wall
    • has an LPS lipid
    • stains pink
  22. What is Gram Positive?
    • Has a thick peptidoglycin above one bilayer
    • different type of cell wall than gram negative
    • has no LPS lipid
    • stains purple
  23. What is Endotoxin?
    • The bacteria that does the destroying
    • ex. menengitis
  24. What is Exotoxin? Example?
    • Bacteria that produces a toxin/poison that causes the disease
    • ex. Botulism and Diptheria
  25. What is Typhoid Fever?
    A common worldwide illness that mainly affects your digestive system
  26. What are some other names for Typhoid?
    • the evergreen enteric fever
    • gastric fever
    • The bends
    • Abdominal typhus
    • Infantile remittent fever
    • Slow fever
    • Nervous fever
    • Pathogenic fever
  27. What are the characteristics of typhoid?
    • Gram negative
    • Facultative anaerobe bacilli
  28. What is the epidemiology of typhoid?
    • With an estimated 16-33 million cases annually resulting in 216,000 deaths in endemic area
    • Still common in poor countries
  29. How is Typhoid fever transmitted?

    • Mostly transmitted when a person eats food or drinks beverages that have been handled by a person shedding the salmonella tyhi bacteria.

    • The bacteria are also transmitted when sewage contaminated with salmonella typhi get into water used for drinking and washing food.

    • Flying insects feeding on feces may occasionally transfer the bacteria through poor hygene habits and public sanitation conditions
  30. Where is typhoid fever transmission most common?

    Areas of the developing world including parts of Asia, Africa and latin America

  31. What is the Pathology of Typhoid? (What happens when you get it?)
    • Slowly progressive fever as high as 104 degrees f (40 degrees c)

    • Profuse sweating

    • Gastroenteritis- inflammation of the Digestive tract

    • Nonbloody diarrhea

    • Untreated has 4 stages

  32. What is the first stage of Typhoid fever?
    • Week one

    • Bloody nose

    • A slowly rising temp

    • Leucopenia- decrease in WBCs

    • The classic widal test is negative

  33. What is the Widal test?

    Test for salmonella in the blood

  34. What happens in stage two or the second week of typhoid infection?

    • Bradycardia- slowing of the heartbeat

    • Delirium is frequent

    • Rose spots

    • Spleen and liver begin to be enlarged

    • Diarrhea can occur

    • Widal reaction is strongly positive

    • Bacteria begins to eat away at your intestine

  35. What happens at stage or week three of infection with typhoid?

    • Number of complications may arrive

    • Intestinal hemorrhaging (bleeding)

    • Intestinal perforation

    • Encephalitis- brain swelling

    • Metastatic Abscesses

  36. What is Intestinal perforation?

    • Macrophage phagocytosis of bacteria

    • In other words, bacteria are eating holes through your intestine and macrophages try to eat the bacteria but fail because theres too much

  37. What are Metastatic Abscesses?

    Bloody infections on your skin that you start to get all over your body

  38. What happens during the fourth stage/week of typhoid infection?

    • Symptoms become worse

    • Death

  39. What is the diagnosis of typhoid fever?
    • Made up by….

    • -àblood

    • -àbone marrow

    • -àstool cultures

    • -àthe widal test

  40. What is the treatment of Typhoid fever?
    • The discovery of oral rehydration therepy provided a simple way to prevent many of the deaths and diarrheal diseases in general, because the diarrhea dehydrates you

    • Treatment of choice is a fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin

  41. How many vaccinations are there against typhoid fever? What are they?

    • Currently 2 vaccinations recommended by the world health organization to prevent typhoid

    • 1. The live, oral Ty21a vaccine- sold as Vivotif Berna

    • 2. The injectable Typhoid Polysaccharide vaccine

  42. How can you prevent Typhoid?
    • Sanitation and hygene are the critical measures that can be taken to prevent

    • Typhoid can only spread in environments where human feces/urine are able to come into contact with food/beverages

    • Careful food preparation and handwashing

  43. What is Botulism?

    A disease that mainly affects the nerves

  44. Explain the organism that causes botulism?

    • Clostridium Botulinum- name

    • Gram Pos

    • Obligate anaerobe bacillis- rodshape that will die around oxygen

    • Spores

    • Ubiquitous- they are everywhere

    • Resistant to heat, light, drying, and radiation

    • Specific conditions for germination

  45. What are spores

    • They almost like hibernate

    • Don’t need anything and can lie almost dorman and can later replicate and become dangerous when germinating

  46. What are the conditions that Clostridium Botulinum needs to germinate?

    • Anaerobic (non oxygen) condidions

    • Warmth- 10-50 degrees C

    • Mild alkalinity or acidity
  47. Whatt does Clostridium Botulinum release?


  48. What are neurotoxins?

    An exotoxin that affects your nerves

  49. How many different types of neurotoxins are there? Explain

    • 7: A-G

    • Different types affect different species

    • All cause flaccid paralysis

    • Only a few nanograms can cause illness

    • Binds neuromuscular junctions- blocks acetylcholine, a messanger that makes your skeletal muscles work

  50. What is the exotoxin-toxin?

    Destroyed by boiling

  51. Inactive spores?

    • Need higher temps to be inactive

    • Harder to kill then the toxins released

  52. Which neruotoxins affect humans?

    A, B, E, and F

  53. Who discovered Botulism? When? Where did he discover it?

    • 1793- Justinius Kerner discovered it in cow stomach being used to store meat

    • He was nicknamed wurstgift

  54. What is Botulus Latin for?


  55. Who was Emile Von Ermengem?

    In 1895 he isolated the organism during a Belgium outbreak

  56. What did US botulism outbreaks lead to?

    Improved Industry Processing

  57. How is Botulism Tranmitted?

    • Ingestion of the organism, spores, or neurotoxin

    • Wound contamination

    • Inhalation

    • Person to person is not documented

    • Some heroin addicts get it from needle contamination

  58. What are the types of botulism?

    • Wound

    • Foodbourne

    • Infant

  59. What is wound botulism?

    • When the bacteria gets into an open wound- rarest form of botulism

    • Develops under anaerobic conditions

    • From ground in dirt or gravel

    • Does not penetrate the skin

    • Associated with addicts of black tar heroine

  60. What is Infant botulism?

    • Infants under one (94% under 6 months) usually get it from eating honey, food, dust, corn syrup

    • Most common in US

    • Spore ingestion- spores germinate then toxin released and colonize in L. Intestine

  61. What is Foodbourne Botulism?

    • Preformed toxin ingested from contaminated food

    • Most common from home canned foods such as asparagus, green beans, beets, corn, baked potatoes, garlic, chile peppers - type a

    • Improperly fermented fish (Alaska)- type E

  62. What is the Epidemiology of Botulism?

    • In US, average of 110 cases per year

    • Appx 25% foodbourne

    • Appx 72% infant form

    • Appx 3% wound form

  63. What is the fatality rate?


  64. What is the infective dose for Botulism?

    A few nanograms

  65. What and When was the largest botulism outbreak?

    • 1977

    • Michigan- 59ppl- 10% died

    • Poorly preserved jalepino peppers

  66. What other state is associated with botulism? Explain.

    • Alaska
    • 27% of US foodborne botulism cases
    • 1950-2000 -226 cases from 114 outbreaks
  67. What are the Adult Clinical signs of Botulism?
    • Nausea, Vommitting Diarrhea

    • Double vision (separates from other similar diseases)

    • Difficulty speaking/ swallowing

    • Descending weakness or paralysis

    • -àshoulders to arms to thights to calves

    • Respiratory Muscle paralysis

  68. What are the Infant Clinical Signs of Botulism?

    • Constipation

    • Lethargy

    • Poor feeding

    • Weak cry

    • Bulbar palsies

    • Failure to thrive

  69. What is the Diagnosis of Botulism

    • Clinical signs may show it

    • Toxin in serum, stool, suspected food

    • Culture of stool or gastric aspirate can be used but takes 5-7 days for result

    • Electromyography – testing of muscles

    • Mouse Neutralization test- results in 48 hours

  70. What is the treatment for Botulism?

    • Hospitalized

    • If it gets to stage 3 you may be on a ventilator for respiratory failure

    • Botulinum anti-toxin

    • Botulism immune globulin- infant cases of type a

  71. Explain Botulinum anti toxin

    • Derived from equine source (horses)

    • CDC distributes it

    • Used on a case by case basis

  72. How does Botox work?

    Works to relax the contraction of muscles by blocking nerve impulses

  73. What is the result of Botox?

    Muscles that can no longer contract, causing wrinkles to relax and soften

  74. How long does it take to see cosmetic improvement for botox?

    2-4 days

  75. How long do the effects of botox last?

    • 4-6 months

    • Most patients require retreatment to remove wrinkles and after each injections the wrinkles are less and less severe as the muscles are trained to relax

  76. How can Humans prevent botulism?

    • Don’t feed honey to kids under 1

    • Proper food preservation methods

    • -àproper time, temp and pressure- 80 degrees for 30 mins and 100 degrees for 10 mins

    • Prompt refrigeration of food

    • Boil foods for more than 10 mins

    • Decontamination

  77. What is decontamination

    • Where you boil suspected food before discarding

    • Boil or chlorine disinfect utensils used

  78. How is botulism a potential bioterrorism threat?

    • Aum Shinriky cult tried to do it

    • Extremely potent and lethal

    • Its easily produced and transported

  79. What are signs of deliberate aerosol or foodbourne releases of toxin? (signs that someone is trying to use botulism for terrorism)

    • No common source

    • Large number of cases clustered

    • Uncommon toxin type (C,D,F,G)

  80. What is the point source aerosol release? (what could it do if used for terrorism?)

    Encapaciate or kill 10% of persons within .5 km downwind

    CDC surveillance system for prompt detection of botulism related events

  81. Penicillin?
    • Inhibits cell wall synthesis
    • targets gram positive bacteria
  82. Ampicillin
    • Inhibits cell wall synthesis
    • targets a broad spectrum of bacteria
  83. Bacitracin
    • Inhibits cell wall synthesis
    • targets gram positive bacteria
    • is a skin ointment
  84. Cephalosporin
    • Inhibits cell wall synthesis
    • Targets Gram positve bacteria
  85. Tetrcycline
    • Inhibits Protien Synthesis
    • targets a broad spectrum of bacteria
  86. Streptomycin
    • Inhibits Protien Synthesis
    • Targets gram negative tuberculosis bacteria
  87. Sulfa Drug
    • Inhibits cell matabolism
    • targets bacterial meningitis, and UTI
  88. Rifampin
    • Inhibits RNA Synthesis
    • Target mostly gram pos bacteria some gram neg
  89. Quinolines
    • Inhibits DNA Synthesis
    • Targets UTI
  90. Bacteria and disease
  91. Botulism
    • Clostridium Botulinum
    • affects nerves
    • transmitted by improperly preserved food
  92. Cholera
    • Vibrio Cholerae
    • affects intestine
    • transmitted through contaminated water
  93. Dental Caries
    • Streptococcus Mutans, sanguis, salivarious
    • affects teeth
    • transmitted by environment to mouth
  94. Gonorrhea
    • Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
    • Affects Urethra andd fallopian tubes
    • got by sex
  95. Lyme Disease
    • Berrelia Burgdorferi
    • afects skin and joints
    • tick bite gives you it
  96. Rocky Mountian Spotted Fever
    • Rickettsia Reckesii
    • affects blood skin
    • tick
  97. Salmonella
    • Salmonella is pathogen
    • Afects intestine
    • contamiated food and watr
  98. Strep Throat
    • Streptococcs Pyogenes
    • URT blood and skin affected
    • sneezes coughs,etc transmit
  99. Tetanus
    • Costridium Tetani
    • affects nerves
    • contaminated wounds
  100. Tb
    • Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
    • affects lungs and bones
    • coughs transmit
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