Also called companionate love; the type of love that occurs when individuals desire to have the other person near and have a deep, caring affection for the person
An unselfish interest in helping someone else.
Opinions and beliefs about people, objects, and ideas.
Theory that views people as motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior as part of their effort to make sense of the behavior.
The tendency of an individual who observes an emergency to help less when other people are present than when the observer is alone.
A concept developed by Festinger; an individual's psychological discomfort (dissonance) caused by two inconsistent thoughts.
A person who is given a role to play in a study so that social context can be manipulated.
Change in a person's behavior to coincide more closely with a group standard.
The reduction of personal identity and erosion of the sense of personal responsibility that can arise when one is part of a group.
In social psychology, an unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because he or she is a member of that group.
Giving to another person to ensure reciprocity; to gain self-esteem; to present oneself as powerful, competent, or caring; or to avoid social and self-censure for failing to live up to society's expectations.
elaboration likelihood model
Theory identifying two ways by which a communication can be persuasive—a central route and by a peripheral route.
A feeling of oneness with the emotional state of another person.
The tendency to favor one's own ethnic group over other groups.
false consensus effect
Overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way we do, stemming from the use of our own outlook or situation to predict that of others.
fundamental attribution error
The tendency for observers to overestimate the importance of internal traits and underestimate the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of an actor's behavior.
group polarization effect
The solidification and further strengthening of an individual's position as a consequence of a group discussion.
Group members' impaired decision making and avoidance of realistic appraisal to maintain group harmony.
informational social influence
The influence other people have on us because we want to be right.
A model emphasizing the ways that commitment, investment, and the availability of attractive alternative partners predict satisfaction and stability in relationships.
mere exposure effect
The outcome that the more we encounter someone or something (a person, a word, an image), the more likely we are to start liking the person or thing even if we do not realize we have seen it before.
normative social influence
The influence that other people have on us because we want them to like and approve of us.
Behavior that complies with the explicit demands of the individual in authority.
Positive views of oneself that are not necessarily deeply rooted in reality.
An unjustified negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual's membership in a group.
The tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by individual group members.
Also called passionate love; the type of love that has strong components of sexuality and infatuation and often predominates in the early part of a love relationship.
The tendency to see oneself primarily as an object in the eyes of others.
Bem's theory about the connection between attitudes and behavior; stresses that individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their behavior.
The tendency to take credit for one's successes and to deny responsibility for one's failures.
The process by which individuals evaluate their thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and abilities in relation to other people.
Imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas.
social exchange theory
A theory based on the notion of social relationships as involving an exchange of goods, the objective of which is to minimize costs and maximize benefits.
Improvement in an individual's performance because of the presence of others.
The way individuals define themselves in terms of their group membership.
social identity theory
Tajfel's theory that social identities are a crucial part of individuals' self-image and a valuable source of positive feelings about themselves.
Each person's tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort.
The study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people.
Information and feedback from others that one is loved and cared for, esteemed and valued, and included in a network of communication and mutual obligation.
A generalization about a group's characteristics that does not consider any variations from one individual to another.
An individual's fast-acting, self-fulfilling fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype about his or her group.