1. morphology
    -study of word making

    -the study of how words are constructed out of morphemes or marked via other processes

    -examines meaning relationships between words and ways in which connections are indicated
  2. lexicon
    mental list of the words in a language, including information about their meaning, grammatical function, pronunciation, and other properties that a speaker must know in order to use a word properly
  3. form
    -what a word sounds like when spoken

    • -structure or shape of any particular linguistic items, from individual segments to sentences
    • -may also be used to denote the item itself
  4. meaning
  5. lexical category
    -also called "parts of speech"

    -class of words grouped together based on morphological and syntactic properties
  6. root
    free morpheme or bound root in a word to which other affixes attach or on which all morphological process act (also, stem)
  7. derivation
    -process of creating words out of other words

    • -in phonology, a process by which an underlying form is changed as phonological rules act upon it
    • -in morphology, a morphological process that changes a word's lexical category or its meaning in some predictable way
  8. stem
    -form of the root

    • -base (which may consist of one or more morphemes) on which a given morpholocial process acts
    • -always includes the root, and it may include one or more other affixes
  9. affixes
    -added pieces

    -bound morphemes that change the meaning or syntactic function of the words to which they attach (also, prefix, infix, suffix)
  10. inflection
    -creation of different grammatical forms of words (NOT entirely new words)

    -modification of a word to express a grammatical relationship to other words in the sentence
  11. inflectional affixes
    -always attach after stem

    • -s (verbs)
    • -ed (verbs)
    • -ing (verbs)
    • -en, -ed (verbs)
    • -s (nouns)
    • -'s, s' (nouns)
    • -er (adj/adv)
    • -est (adj/adv)
  12. morphemes
    -parts that words are made of

    -smallest linguistic units that have meaning or grammatical function
  13. suffix
    -affix that follows a stem
  14. prefix
    -affix that precedes a stem
  15. homophonous
    -affix that wound alike but have different meanings or functions (like homophones)
  16. free morphemes
    -can be used as words all by themselves
  17. bound morphemes
    -cannot stand alone as words (ex: affixes)

    -morphemes that always attach to other morphemes, never existing as words themselves
  18. bound roots
    -unable to stand alone as words (despite seeming to have some associated basic meaning...ex: -fer)

    -morphemes that have some associated basic meaning, but are unable to stand alone as words in own right
  19. content morphemes
    • -"meaningful morphemes"
    • -some simple words that have some kind of identifiable meaning
    • -some affixes indicating a change in meaning with respect to the root to which they attach
    • -any affix that, when added to a stem, produces a word that belongs to a different part of speech class (such as turning nouns into adjectives)

    -morpheme that carries semantic content (as opposed to merely performing a grammatical function)
  20. function morphemes
    • -"grammatical morphemes"
    • -relate certain words of a sentence to one another (prepositions, articles, conjunctions, inflectional affixes)

    -morpheme that provides information about the grammatical relationships between words in a sentence
  21. productive rules
    -rules that speakers are able to apply to form novel words

    -productive: describes a rule that can be applied in novel situations to produce novel grammatical forms
  22. word formation process
    -the combination of morphemes according to rules of the language in question to make new words or forms of words
  23. affixation
    -process of forming words by adding affixes to morphemes
  24. infix
    • -affix inserted within the root morpheme
    • -English has no regular infixes.

    -type of bound morpheme that is inserted into the middle of the stem
  25. simultaneous
    -when affixes appear at the same time as each other (only possible in signed languages)

    -simultaneous affix- affix that is articulated at the same time as some other affix or affixes in a word's stem; exist only in visual gestural languages
  26. compounding
    -process that forms new words from tow or more independent words (instead of affixes)

    -word formation process by which words are formed through combining two or more independent words
  27. reduplication
    • -process of forming new words either by doubling an entire free morpheme (total reduplication) or part of it (partial reduplication)
    • -(ex: bye bye)

    -process of forming new words by doubling either an entire word or part of a word
  28. reduplicant
    -reduplicated piece

    -morpheme or part of morpheme that is repeated in reduplication
  29. alternation
    • -morpheme-internal modifications
    • -(ex: man --> men)

    -in morphology, the morphological process that uses morpheme-internal modifications to make new words or morphological distinctions
  30. suppletion
    • -irregular situation where root will sometimes have one or more inflected forms phonetically unrelated to the shape of the root
    • -(ex: is--> was)

    -morphological process between forms of a word wherein one form cannot be phonologically or morphologically derived from the other
  31. two basic morphological types
    analytic and synthetic
  32. analytic language
    -made up of sequences of free morphemes--each word consists of a single morpheme, used by itself with meaning and function intact

    • -type of language in which most words consist of one morpheme and sentences are composed of sequences of these free morphemes
    • -grammatical relationships often indicated by word order
  33. isolating languages
    • -purely analytic languages
    • -do not use affixes to compose words
  34. synthetic language
    -bound morphemes are attached to other morphemes so a word may be made up of several meaningful elements

    -language in which affixes are attached to other morphemes, so that a word may be made up of several meaningful elements
  35. three types of synthetic language
    agglutinating, fusional, and polysynthetic
  36. agglutination
    • (in synthetic language)
    • -the morphemes are joined together relatively "loosely"--usually easy to determine where the boundaries between morphemes are
    • -each bound morpheme (usually) carries only one meaning

    • agglutination: putting together of morphemes
    • agglutinating language: type of synthetic language in which the relationships between words in a sentence are indicated primarily by bound morphemes
    • -morphemes are joined together loosely so that it is easy to determine where boundaries between morphemes are
  37. fusional
    • (in synthetic language)
    • -words are formed by adding bound morphemes to stems, though affixes may not be easy to separate from stem
    • -single affix frequently conveys several meanings simultaneously

    fusional language: type of synthetic language in which the relationships between the words in a sentence are indicated by bound morphemes that are difficult to separate from the stem
  38. polysynthetic
    • (in synthetic language)
    • -highly complex words may be formed by combining several stems and affixes; usually a matter of making nouns into parts of the verb forms

    polysynthetic language: type of language that attaches several affixes to a stem to indicate grammatical relationships
  39. incorporation
    • -nouns "built in" to verbs
    • -incorporated versions not necessarily identical to free form

    -morphological process by which several distinct semantic components are combined into a single word in a polysynthetic language
  40. input
    -the stems with which a given affix may combine

    -linguistic form before the application of a rule or set of rules
  41. output
    -words that are formed when an affix attaches to a stem

    -linguistic form obtained after an application of a rule or set of rules
  42. hierarchical structure
    -can be schematically represented by tree diagram indicating steps involved in formation of word

    -the dominance relationship among elements in a word, phrase, or sentence
  43. ambiguous
    • -words have more than one meaning
    • -structure may be analyzed in more than one way

    ambiguity: property or words, phrases, or sentences that have two or more meanings
  44. allomorphs
    • -forms differ phonetically but belong to same morpheme
    • -(ex: il-, in-, im-, ir-)
  45. procedure for performing morphological analysis
    • 1. Isolate and compare forms that are partially similar
    • 2. If a single phonetic form has two distinct meanings, it must be analyzed as representing two different morphemes.
    • 3. If the same function and meaning are associated with different phonetic forms, these different forms all represent the same morpheme (allomorphs), and the choice of form in each case may be predictable on the basis of the phonetic environment
Card Set
chapter 4--morphology