Sociology Terms

  1. Sacred
    Durkheim's term for things set apart or forbidden that inspire fear, awe, reverence, or respect
  2. Profane
    Durkheim's term for common elements of everyday life
  3. Religion
    According to Durkeheim, beliefs and practices that separate the profane from the sacred and unite its adherents into a moral community
  4. Church
    One of the three essential elements of religion--a moral community of believers, also refers to a large highly organized religious groups that has formal, sedate worship services with little emphasis on evangelism, intense religious experience, or personal conversion
  5. State Religions
    a government-sponsored religion; also called ecclesia
  6. Civil Religion
    Robert Bellah's term for religion that is such an established feature of a country's life that its history and social instructions become sactified by being associated with God
  7. Functional Equivalent
    A substitute that serves the same functions (or meets the same needs) as religion; for example, psychotherapy
  8. Rituals
    Ceremonies or repetiteve practices; in religion, observances or rites often intended to evoke a sence of awe of the sacred
  9. Cosmology
    Teachings or ideas that provide a unified picture of the world
  10. Religious Experience
    A sudden awareness of the supernatural or a feeling of coming in contact with God
  11. Born Again
    A term describing christians who have undergone a religious experience so life-transforming that they feel they have become new persons
  12. Modernization
    The transformation of traditional societies into industrial societies.
  13. Spirit of Capitalism
    Weber's term for the desire to accumulate capital--not to spend it, but as an end in itself--and to constantly reinvest it.
  14. Protestant Ethic
    Weber's term to describe a self-denying highly moral life accompanied by hard work and frugality
  15. Monotheism
    The belief that there is only one God
  16. Polytheism
    the belief that there are many gods
  17. Animism
    The belief that all objects in the world have spirits, some of which are dangerous and must be outwitted
  18. anti-Semitism
    Prejudice, discrimination, and persecution directed against Jews
  19. Fundamentalism
    The belief that social change, especially in values, is threatening true religion and that the religion needs to go back to its fundamentals (roots, basic beliefs, and practices)
  20. Reincaration
    in Hinduism and Buddhism, the return of the soul (or self) after death in a different form
  21. Cult
    A new religion with few followers, whose teachings and practices put it at odds with the dominant culture and religion
  22. Charismatic Leader
    Literally, someone to whom God has given a gift; in its extended sense, someone who exerts extraordinary appeal to a group of followers
  23. Charisma
    Literally, an extraordinary gift from God, more commonly, an outstanding "magnetic" personality
  24. Sect
    A religious group larger than a cult that still feels substantial hostility from and toward society
  25. Evangelism
    An attempt to win converts
  26. Ecclesia
    A religious group so integrated into the dominant culture that it is difficult to tell where the one begins and the other leaves off; also called a state religion
  27. Denomination
    a "brand name" within a major religion; for example, Methodist or Baptist
  28. Secular
    Belonging to the world and its affairs
  29. Secularization of Religion
    The replacement of a religion's spiritual or "other worldly" concerns about "this world"
  30. Secularization of Culture
    The process by which a culture becomes less influenced by religion
Card Set
Sociology Terms
Religion Terms