Unit 3

  1. What was the final straw of the Articles of Confederation?
    Shays Rebellion
  2. Who called a mettin at Annapolis Maryland?
    Alexander Hamilton and James Madison
  3. How many people attended the metting in Maryland in 1786?
    5 people showed up
  4. What came out of the metting called by Madison and Hamilton?
    The idea to scrap the articles and to meet again in Philadelphia
  5. When was the Constitutional Convention?
    September 1787
  6. How many delegates were at the Constitutional Convention and which state did not attend?
    55 delegates from every state except Rhode Island
  7. What was the average age of the delegates
    Average Age was 44
  8. Who was the oldest delegate?
    Ben Franklin was the oldest delegate at age 81 and had to be carried in because he was dying
  9. The delegates were all ___________ men
    professional, eductated
  10. Who was the president of the Convention?
    George Washington
  11. James Madison was most prepared for the convention and was given the name
    The Father of the Constitution
  12. The first two things agreed on at the convention were...
    to keep it secret and to scrap the Articles
  13. The Constitution was a Bundle of ___________
  14. The problem involving large states and small states on representation was settled through which compromise?
    • The Great Compromise which stated that we would have a 2 house (Bicameral) legislature
    • The lower House (House of Representatives) would be voted by the people with the number of representatives based on population
    • The upper House (Senate) would be chosen by state legislatures with an equal number of representatives per state
  15. The Virginia Plan was also known as the...
    Big States Plan
  16. Who wrote the Virginia Plan?
    James Madison
  17. The Virginia Plan called for...
    • 2 House Congress
    • Lower House voted on by the people representation based on population and they chose the upper house with no set number of representatives
  18. The New Jersey Plan was also known as the...
    Small States Plan
  19. Who wrote the New Jersey Plan?
    William Patterson
  20. What was the New Jersey Plan?
    One house Legislature with each state having equal representation
  21. Both the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan gave Congress what power?
    the power to tax
  22. What was the 3/ths compromise?
    3 out of every 5 slaves would be counted towards the population
  23. What was the slave trade compromise?
    • Would not make any laws regarding slavery for 20 years
    • there would be no taking on the importing of slaves
  24. What was the problem that led to the Slave Trade Compromise?
    Northern and Southern States were arguing over whether or not slavery should exist
  25. What problem led to the Commerce Compromise?
    Northern states felt they needed to protect American Industry and raise money for a strong national government (Protective Tariff)

    The Southern States didn't want tariffs because their farmers would be harmed by tariffs because of the amount of foreign trade
  26. What was the Commerce Compromise?
    Comgress could tax imports but not exports
  27. The Commerce Compromise was also a part of __________ because...
    The Slave Trade Compromise; because the Suth was afraid the North could control Slave Trade by taxing imports
  28. How many Compromises were there in the Election Compromise?
  29. What was the problem that led to the Election Compromise
    Aristocrats vs. "Common Man" on Political Decisions

    • Aristocrats wanted only the wealthy and well educated to participate in the election process
    • "Common Man" wanted everyone to participate
  30. Compromise 1 dealt with the Election of Congress, what did it say about the Lower House?
    • House of Representatices (Lower House)
    • each state has house districts and the voters of each district will elect its representatives

    • Each Representative must fit the following requirements
    • o 25 years Old
    • o Resident of State… not necessarily district**
    • o Citizen of USA for at least 7 years
    • o Serve 2 years, with unlimited terms
    • o Must run every 2 years
  31. Compromise 1 dealt with the Election of Congress, what did it say about the Upper House?
    • Senate – the state legislatures will choose two senators who will represent the state at large
    • Each senator must fit the following reguirements
    • o 30 years old
    • o Resident of the State Representing
    • o Citizen of the USA for at least 9 years
    • o Serve 6 year unlimited terms
    • o Only 1/3 run every 2 years (Staggered)
    • o “Continuous Body” – 85-90% of the time people who were already in the Senate win
  32. According to the 17th amendment in 1913 the voters of each state choose their senators in _______ elections
  33. Compromise 2 dealt with the Election of the President, what did it say about the States electors
    • electors are chosen by the state legislature
    • the number of electors will be equal to the number of senators and representatives that the state has in Congress
  34. How does a candidate win the Presidency?
    Whichever candidate gets a majority of the electoral votes wins the presidency which is 270 electoral college votes
  35. What happens if no candidate wins a majority of the electoral college votes?
    If no candidate receives a majority of the electoral votes, the House of Representatives chooses the winner by vote
  36. Before the 12th amendment how was the vice president chosen?
    Before the 12th amendment (1803), the candidate with the majority of the electoral votes is president and the candidate with the second most electoral votes is the vice-president
  37. What are the Presidential Requirements?
    • Must be 35 years old
    • Must be a Natural Born Citizen
    • Must have lived in the USA for 14 years total
    • Must be a current resident of the USA
  38. How long are the Presidential Terms?
    • A president serves a 4 year term with a minimum of 2 terms or 10 years total
    • Before the 22nd amendment (1961) a president could serve an unlimited number of terms (FDR elected to 4 terms)
  39. Compromise 3 dealt with the ____________ and was in Article ___
    Judicial Branch; Article III
  40. What was the Judiciary Act of 1789
    • Set the structure of the federal court system and the qualifications for becoming a federal judge… including the Supreme Court
    • o No Qualifications
    • o President Appoints
    • o Senate approves-disapproves
  41. What are the Fundamentals of the Constitution?
    • Popular Sovereignty (People Rule)
    • Republican (Representative)
    • Separation of Powers
    • Checks and Balances
    • Federalism
    • Supreme Law of the Land
  42. How many delegates signed the Constitution?
    39 out of 52 signed the Constitution on September 17, 1787
  43. What did the delegates promise would be added to the Constitution after it was ratified?
    Bill pf Rights would be added through amendments
  44. How many states had to ratify the Constution according to Article VII?
    9 out of the 13 states had to ratify it unlike the Articles where all 13 had to
  45. The constitutional debate was between which 2 people?
    Alexander Hamilton leading the federalists and Patrick Henry leading the Anti-Federalists
  46. The federalist argument was...
    • More organized
    • Had the support of George Washington and Ben Franklin
    • Support of ablest political philosophers of the day: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay
    • They wrote a series of 85 essays to explain and enlist support for ratification of the Constitution published as the Federalist Paper
  47. What did the Federalists (Hamiltonians) want?
    • Strong Central Government
    • Act more as a Nation-State
    • Loose Interpretation of the Constitution
    • Base Economy on Manufacturing
    • Educated Aristocrats run Government
  48. The Hamiltonians also wanted to earn the respect of...
    • Foreign Nations
    • States
    • Americans (People in General)
  49. Who was the first Opposition Party?
    Democratic-Republicans (Republicans) (Jeffersonians)
  50. What did the Republicans want?
    • A smaller central government Stronger than the Articles but not as strong as the federalists wanted
    • Economy based on Agriculture
    • Mostly rural areas with a few cities
    • Strict interpretation of the Constitution“Common Man” more involved in the political process
  51. What were the 4 main parts of Hamilton's Financial Plan?
    • Funding
    • Assumption
    • National Bank
    • and New Taxes
  52. What was the purpose of Funding?
    Create a national debt and have wealthy individuals and states invest in that debt. Wealthy concerned about the well being of the US Government
  53. What was the purpose of Assumption?
    National Government pays the states’ debts. States will see National Government as an asset that will help them and thus have more interest in the US Government
  54. What was the purpose of the National Bank?
    • To carry out such functions as:
    • Loans for Banks
    • Safe place for Government to store its revenue
    • To issue/sell bonds in the government
  55. What was the purpose of New Taxes?
    To carry out the functions of the government
  56. What 2 new taxes did Hamiltons financial plan put in place?
    • Whiskey Tax
    • Tariff on Imports
  57. What was the Whiskey Tax?
    An excise tax on rye whiskey produced by farmers West of the Appalachian Mountains
  58. What was the Tariff on imports?
    This was a “Protective Tariff” to raise money, but mostly to protect American Manufacturers
  59. What was Hamilton's Report on Manufacturers?
    What we needed to do to become a good manufacturing Country…
  60. What did the Republicans call Hamilton's Plans?
  61. What did the Republicans think about Hamilton's funding?
    Unfair to original owners… many soldiers were paid with these certificates. Wealthy speculators were getting rich off of the poor
  62. What did the Republicans think about Hamilton's Assumption?
    Many of the Republican dominated Southern States had already paid their war debts… more control over the states by the Central Government
  63. What did the Republicans think about the National Bank?
    That it was unconstitutional
  64. What did the Republicans think about the Whiskey Tax?
    The farmers West of the Appalachian Mountains were upset because they had to turn some of their grain into whisky in order to get it safely across the Mountains to make money
  65. What did the Republicans think about the Protective Tariff?
    The farmers West of the Appalachian Mountains were upset because they had to turn some of their grain into whisky in order to get it safely across the Mountains to make money
  66. In general, what did the Republicans think of Hamilton's financial plan?
    In general, Hamilton’s Plan favored the Wealthy way too much over the “Common Man”
  67. What was Hamilton's financial plan?
    A series of actions passed seperately in Congress created by Hamilton and supported by the federalists
  68. What was the deal between Jefferson and Hamilton that allowed the passage of the Financial Plan?
    The moving of the Capital farther South which led to the creation of Washington, D.C. in 1800
  69. What is the Significance of the Whiskey Rebellion?
    Hamilton wanted the Rebellion to show that the new government could handle rebellions and prove how much stronger it was.
  70. How did Washington gain the loyalties of the other frontier people?
    Forced original 13 colonies to give up some land claims to create the states of Kentucky and Tennessee (Vermont was the 14th)
  71. What happened at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794?
    Mad “ Anthony Wayne defeats Little Turtle and the Miami Indians
  72. What happened as a result of the Greenville treaty of 1795?
    Miami Indians gave up all claims on the Ohio Territory
  73. Are Native Americans mentioned in the Constitution?
    Barely, but they are recognized as legal entities with some sovereignty over their lands
  74. Our relationship with the Indians was
    still very unstable untill the 1900s
  75. Why did Washigton make the Proclamation of Neutrality?
    Washington made the Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793 to stay out of the on-going war between England and France
  76. What is Washington's most controversial issue?
    The Proclamation of Neutrality
  77. How were matters made worse for Washington after the Proclamation of Neutrality by France?
    Matters were made worse for Washington by the ambassador sent over from the new French “revolutionary” government: “Citizen” (Edmond) Genét
  78. How were matters made worse for Washington after the Proclamation of Neutrality by England?
    England made matters even worse by attacking American trade ships in the French West Indies and Canada’s war like talk of aiding the Indians on the Western Frontier
  79. What was the Jay Treaty?
    • Made by Chief Justice John Jay (Federalist) with England… Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson had just resigned in ‘92
    • The treaty was very weak and did not meet its goals
    • Didn’t stop British assaults on shipping
    • There was a small withdraw from the Western Frontier posts, but not much
    • However, it did get a new commercial trade agreement
  80. What was the Pinckney Treaty?
    • Made by Thomas Pinckney with Spain
    • Spain Agreed to:
    • Give the US the use of the Mississippi River and the port at New Orleans
    • Fixed the boundary of Florida where we wished
    • Required Spanish authorities to halt Indian raids across the Florida Border
  81. The Pinckney Treaty was aided by what?
    Was actually aided by the fact that the Jay treaty was so weak with the British that Spain feared an alliance between the USA and England and were very willing to negotiate
  82. The first ever peaceful switch to power was between...
    George Washington (1st president) and John Adams (2nd president)
  83. What was Washington's farewell address?
    • Partially Written by Hamilton and published in a Philadelphia Newspaper
    • Answered Republican Criticisms
    • Warned against “Factions” (Political Parties)
    • Warned against foreign entanglements and emphasized that he had avoided war
  84. What were the examples set by George Washington for future presidents?
    • Served only 2 terms and peacefully surrendered the office
    • Created a Cabinet (Presidential Advisors)
    • Jefferson (Secretary of State)
    • Hamilton (Secretary of Treasury)
    • Henry Knox (Secretary of War… Now called Secretary of Defense)
    • Edmond Randolph (Attorney General/ Justice Department)
    • Avoided War
    • Not personally involved with legislative process in Congress
    • Held the office with dignity, yet not king-likeHonored the Constitutional process
  85. President John Adams....
    • Did not have the full support of all Federalists… Hamilton and many southerner
    • Because of the awkward (pre 12th amendment) election… his opponent, Thomas Jefferson (Republican) was his Vice- President
    • Was very stubborn and saw political criticism as “undermining” the office of the president
    • Created the Navy
  86. Why did we have a Quasi War with France?
    • Jay and Pinckney’s treaties improved our relationship with England and Spain
    • French were attacking shipping and refused our ambassador, C.C. Pinckney
    • Adams sent a group to negotiate with the French government… France insisted on a bribe/loan to negotiate. The French representatives representing Prince Talleyrand were given the name “Agents X, Y, and Z” (1797)
  87. What was the XYZ Affair?
    • Adams denounced the French
    • Adams created the Department of the Navy in 1798 and carried out a Quasi War with the French
    • American loyalties quickly moved back from the French to the British
    • Many American’s wanted war with France
  88. What was the New Agreement with France as of 1800?
    • Cancelled the old agreement in 1788
    • Now dealing with Napoleon
    • Many Americans were upset with this treaty
    • There was no way to stand up to France
    • Adams did what was the right course of action
    • Paid a high political cost
  89. When were the Alien and Sedition Acts passed?
    Passed in 1798 while they fervor over the Quasi War with France was going on and the Federalists held the majority (for the last time) in Congress
  90. What was the Alien Act?
    Made it harder for immigrants to become American Citizens
  91. What was the Sedition Act?
    Made it illegal to be engaged in “seditions” (criticizing) against the government
  92. Did Adams use the Sedition Act?
    Adams did not use the Sedition Act much, but was used against some newspapers that has been critical
  93. How did Republicans attempt to reverse the Alien and Sedition Acts?
    • Republicans used state legislatures to attempt to reverse the acts
    • Virginia Resolution (Madison)
    • Kentucky Resolution (Jefferson)
    • Used arguments of John Locke (“social contract”)
    • Did not win wide support by states; but did bring debate to be a national issue. Fight in Congress between 2 congressmen
  94. What is the Revolution of 1800
    When the Federalists lost control of Congress
  95. The ugly campaign in 1800 was between who?
    John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
  96. Who won the election of 1800
    Jefferson beat Adams but there was a tie between him and his running mate Aaron Burr, the election went to the House and on the 36th ballot Jefferson finally won win Hamilton shifted his support from Burr to Jefferson
  97. What was the Judiciary Act of 1801?
    Created new federal judgeships and appointed Federalists to these positions
  98. What does "lame duck" mean?
    Government officials who are basically holding the position for the new officials who were elected but are not in office untill March
  99. Who made the Judiciary Act of 1801
    "Lame Duck" President John Adams and the "Lame Duck" Federalist controlled Congress
  100. The appointments of the Judiciary Act of 1801 were called...
    "Midnight Appointments" or "Midnight Judges"
Card Set
Unit 3
Federalist Era 1789-1788