Chap 13 Terminology.txt

  1. antagonistic
    acting in opposition; mutually opposing
  2. electrolytes
    mineral salts (sodium, potassiu, and calcium) that carry an electrical charge in solution
  3. glucagon
    hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cels that increases the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver to change stored glycogen (a starch form of sugar) to glucose
  4. glucose
    simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion
  5. homeostasis
    relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes
  6. hormones
    chemical substances produced by specialized cells of the body that are released slowly in minute amounts directly into the bloodstream
  7. insulin
    hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that acts to remove sugar (glucose) from the blood by promoting its storage in tissues as carbohydrates
  8. sympathomimetic
    agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
  9. target
    structure, organ, or tissue to which something is directed
  10. acromegaly
    chronic metabolic disorder characterized by a gradual, marked enlargement and thickening of the bones of the face and jaw
  11. diuresis
    increased formation and secretion of urine
  12. glucagon
    hormone secreted by the pancreatic alpha cells
  13. glycose
    simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion
  14. glycosuria
    presence of glucose in the urine or abnormal amount of sugar in the urine
  15. Graves Disease
    multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball)
  16. hirsutism
    excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women
  17. hypercalcemia
    excessive amount of calcium in the blood
  18. hyperkalemia
    excessive amount of potassium in the blood
  19. hypervolemia
    abnormal increase in the volume of circulating fluid (plasma) in the body
  20. hyperatremia
    abnormal condition of low sodium in the blood
  21. insulinoma
    tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
  22. obesity
    excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal weight
  23. morbid obesity
    body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
  24. panhypopituitarism
    total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormonal activity
  25. pheochromocytoma
    small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla
  26. thyroid storm
    crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of increased amount of thyroid hormone; also called thyroid crisis or thyrotoxic crisis
  27. virile
    masculine or having characteristics of a man
  28. virilism
    masculinization in a woman or development of male secondary sex characteristics in the woman
  29. exophthalmometry
    test that measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball (exophthalmos) as seen in Graves disease
  30. fasting blood sugar
    test that measures blood glucose levels after a 12 hour fast
  31. glucose tolerance test (GTT)
    test that measures the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a standard dose of glucose and measuring glucose levels in the blood and urine at regular intervals
  32. insulin tolerance test
    test that determines insulin levels in serum (blood) by administering insulin and measuring blood glucose levels in blood at regular intervals
  33. protein-bound iodine (PBI)
    • test that measures the concentration of thyroxine in a blood sample
    • providesan index of thyroid activity
  34. thyroid function test (TFT)
    test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function
  35. total calcium
    test that measures calcdium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders
  36. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images
  37. radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)
    administration of radioactive iodine (RAI) orally or intravenously (IV) as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from the blood
  38. thyroid scan
    after injection of a radioactive substance, a scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland
  39. microneurosurgery of the pituitary gland
    microdissection of a tumor using a binocular surgical microscope for magnification
  40. parathyroidectomy
    excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control hyperparathyroidism
  41. pinealectomy
    removal of the pineal body
  42. thymectomy
    excision of the thymus gland
  43. throidectomy
    excision of the thyroid gland
  44. partial throidectomy
    method of choice for removing a fibrous, nodular thyroid
  45. subtotal thyroidectomy
    removal of most of the thyroid to relieve hyperthyroidism
  46. antidiuretics
    reduce or control excretion of urine
  47. sample of an antidiuretic
    • TRADE: vasopressin
    • Pitressin
    • Pressyn
  48. antithyroids
    treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3 and T4 hormone
  49. sample of an antithyroid
    • 1. TRADE: methmazole
    • 1. Tapazole
    • 2. TRADE: strong iodine solution
    • 2. Lugol's solution
  50. corticosteroids
    replace hormones lost in adrenal insufficience (Addison disease)
  51. sample of a corticosteroids
    • 1. TRADE: cortisone
    • 1. Cortisone acetate
    • 2. TRADE:hydrocortisone
    • 2. A-Hydrocort; Cortef
  52. Growth Hormone Replacements
    increase skeletal growth in children and growth hormone deficiencies in adults
  53. sample of growth hormone replacements
    • 1. TRADE: somatropin (recombinant)
    • 1. Humatrope, Norditropin
  54. Insulins
    lower blood glucose by promoting its entrance into body cells and converting glucose to glycogen (a starch-storage form of glucose)
  55. sample of insulins
    • 1. TRADE: regular insulin
    • 1. Humulin R; Novolin R
    • 2. TRADE: NPH Insulin
    • 2. Humulin N; Novolin N, Humulin
  56. oral antidiabetics
    treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating the pancrease to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin
  57. samples of oral antidiabetics
    • 1. TRADE:glipizide
    • 1. Glucotrol; Glucotrol XL
    • 2. TRADE:Glyburide
    • 2. DiaBeta, Glynase
  58. Thyroid Supplements
    replace or supplement thyroid hormones
  59. samples of thyroid supplementes
    • 1. TRADE:Levothyroxine
    • 1. Levo-T; Levoxyl; Synthroid
    • 2. TRADE: Liothyronine
    • 2. Cytomel; Triostat
Card Set
Chap 13 Terminology.txt
Chap 13 Terminology