1. Glycogen
    • The storage form of glucose and is a polysaccharide.
    • *saccharide is a single sugar unit*
  2. Glycogenesis
    The formation of glycogen from glucose.
  3. Glycogenolysis
    The breakdown of glycogen to glucose.
  4. Glycolysis
    Glucose changed to give energy.
  5. Gluconeogenesis
    Glucose formed from fats or proteins.
  6. Where is glycogen made and stored?
    • It is made in the liver.
    • It is stored in the liver and muscle.
    • *the liver is carbohydrate or metabolism central*
    • *the liver removes or adds glucose to the blood*
  7. Where is insulin made?
    It is made in the beta cells of Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.
  8. What does insulin do?
    • Insulin transports glucose through the cell membrane into the cell.
    • Insulin must be present for glucose to enter cells.
  9. How does insulin affect the blood glucose level?
    It lowers the blood glucose level.
  10. Where is glucagon made?
    It is made in the alpha cells of the pancreas.
  11. What does glucagon do?
    It stimulates glycogenolysis.
  12. How does glucagon affect the blood glucose level?
    It is going to increase the blood glucose levels.
  13. Where are ketone bodies made?
    They are made in the liver.
  14. What are ketone bodies made from?
    • Ketone bodies are made from excess fatty acids that are partially metabolized into energy.
    • *when your body burns fatty acids the waste product is ketone bodies*
  15. Ketonuria
    Ketone bodies in the urine.
  16. Ketonemia
    Ketone bodies in the blood
  17. Ketoacidosis
    • Blood ph <7.35 due to ketones in the blood
    • (acid builds up in blood)
  18. Hyperglycemia
    High blood glucose
  19. Hypoglycemia
    Low blood glucose
  20. Glucosuria/Glycosuria
    Glucose in the urine
  21. Renal threshold
    • The blood level above which glucose spills into the urine
    • *there shouldn't be any glucose in urine*
  22. IDDM is also known as
    • Insulin Dependent Diabetic Mellitus
    • polyuria, polyclipsia, ployphagia
    • TypeI
    • Juvenille 5 to 10% of all diabetics are TypeI
  23. The Age of onset of IDDM
    • At any age
    • More common in youth younger that 20 years old
  24. Type of onset of IDDM
    • Abrupt
    • All of a sudden
  25. Symptoms of IDDM
    • Weight lost
    • Polyuria (increased urine)
    • Polydipsia (increased thirst)
    • Polyphagia (increased hunger)
  26. IDDM and Endogenous insulin
  27. Oral agents used if you have IDDM
    No cannot take pills
  28. Cause of IDDM (type I)
    • Distruction of beta cells
    • Autoimmune genetic susceptibility, attacks it's own pancreas
  29. NIDDM also known as
    • Non Insulin Dependent Diabetic Mellitus
    • Tpye II - adult diabeties
    • 90% of diabetics are Type II
  30. The Age of onset of NIDDM
    • Any age
    • More common in adults over 30
  31. NIDDM type of onset
  32. Symptoms of NIDDM
    Sometimes none
  33. NIDDM and Endogenous insulin
  34. NIDDM using Oral agents
    • Yes useful 1/3 of the time
    • 1/3 can be managed by diet and exercise
  35. Causes of NIDDM
    • Beta cell exhaustion or insulin resistant
    • Also runs in family
    • could be obese or more than normal body weight
  36. What type of diabetes has a tendency to get ketoacidosis?
    Type I (Juvenile Diabetes)
  37. Which type of diabetes may be controlled by diet alone?
    Type II (Adult diabetes)
  38. What do diabetics metabolize instead of glucose?
    • Lipids (fats)
    • 95% of fats in the body are triglycerides or fatty acids
  39. What is retinopathy?
    • It is a complication seen in both Type I & II diabetes.
    • It is the Sclerosis (hardening) of the minute or tiny blood vessels of the eye.
  40. What are some of the complications of diabetes?
    • A. Atherosclerosis- lipid deposits within arterial walls
    • B. CAD- Coronary Artery Disease
    • C. Peripheral Vascular Disease- poor circulation to the extremities (fingers&toes)
    • D. Poor Wound Healing
    • E. Susceptibility to Infections (white blood cells not functioning)
    • F. Neuropathy- damage of the nerver, especially in the extremities (feet)
    • G. Nephropathy- disease of the kidney
  41. Diabetic Coma Untreated diabetic
    (blood sugar too high)
    Insulin Level
  42. Diabetic Coma - Blood glucose level
  43. Diabetic Coma - Urine glucose
    Present or positive
  44. Diabetic Coma - Onset
    Over hours or Days
  45. Diabetic Coma - Symptoms
    • Deep breathing
    • Dry tongue & skin dehydrated
    • Fruity breath or acetone breath
    • Patient is drowsy and lethargic
    • Coma
  46. Diabetic Coma - Treat pt. with
    Insulin, fluids and eletrolytes
  47. Insulin Shock Too Much Insulin
    (Low blood sugar)
    Insulin Level
  48. Insulin Shock - Blood glucose level
  49. Insulin Shock - Urine glucose
    Not present
  50. Insulin Shock - Onset
    Sudden - in a matter of minutes
  51. Insulin Shock - Symptoms
    • Shallow breathing
    • Rapid heart action & perspiration
    • Normal breath (not sweet)
    • Light headed or faint
    • intoxicated, thick speech
    • unsteady walking
    • Coma
  52. Insulin Shock - Treat pt. with
    • 15g of readily available sugar
    • ex. raisins, 7 to 8 lifesavers, 3 to 4 teaspoons of sugar, half of cup of regular pop
  53. What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia?
    (blood sugar low)
    • Same as Insulin Shock
    • Shallow breathing
    • Rapid heart action & perspiration
    • Normal breath (not sweet)
    • Light headed or faint
    • intoxicated, thick speech
    • unsteady walking
    • Coma
  54. What is a fasting blood glucose sample?
    One with no food or beverage within 12 hours
  55. What does OGTT stand for?
    Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
  56. What samples are taken for the OGTT?
    • Blood samples
    • Sugar solution * must drink within 5 mins.*
    • FBS(fasting blood sugar) 1, 2, 3 hours
    • Test taken 1 hour after drinking solution
    • 2nd hour the blood sugar should being going down
    • 3rd hour blood sugar should be normal
  57. What samples are taken for the OGTT if hypoglycemia is suspected?
    The test will continue and blood samples will be taken at hours 4 & 5 after drinking sugar solution.
  58. Given the renal threshold and a patient's blood glucose level, how would you determine if glucose will be in the urine?
    • Renal threshold 170mg/dL
    • <170 no sugar present (less than)
    • >170 sugar present (greater than)
  59. How is the hours postprandial (after meal) glucose test done?
    Fasting level and 2 hours after a meal
  60. What is a normal result for the 2-hour postprandial (after meal) glucose test?
    <140mg/dL is normal result
  61. What does the Hb-A1c test measure?
    • It test HbA1, combined with glucose
    • hemoglobin combined with glucose
  62. What is the advantage of the Hb-A1c/glycosylated hemoglobin test?
    • It reflects the blood glucose over a 3 month period.
    • normal is 4 to 6%
Card Set
Carbohydrate Metabolism Worksheet