PSY 300 - Quiz 2

  1. What is learning?
    Learning occurs when experience (including practice) causes a relatively permanent change in an individuals knowledge or behavior.
  2. What do cognitive psychologists focus their studies on?
    Cognitive psychologists focus on changes in knowledge and believe learning is an internal mental activity that can not be observed directly. (thinking, remembering, problem solving)
  3. Behavioral Learning Theories
    The outcome of learning is change in behavior and emphasizes the effects of external events on the individual.
  4. Aristotle's Theory
    We remember things together (1) when they are similar, (2) when they contrast, and (3) when they are contiguous.
  5. Contiguity
    Whenever two or more events occur together often enough, they will become associated.
  6. Stimulus
    Event that activates behavior
  7. Response
    Observable reaction to a stimulus
  8. Classical Conditioning
    focuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses
  9. Respondents
    Automatic responses to stimuli
  10. Ivan Pavlov
    1920's Russian physiologist who was trying to determine how long it took a dog to secrete digestive juices after it had be fed, but his experiment changed when he noticed that the dogs began to salivate when the researchers would get up to feed them. He learned that he could cause the dogs to salivate when introducing different stimuli when presenting the food or eventually without presenting food. ie. the bell ringing without food
  11. Neutral Stimulus
    stimulus not connected to a response
  12. Unconditioned Stimulus
    stimulus that automatically produces an emotional or physiological response
  13. Unconditioned Response
    naturally occurring emotional or physiological response
  14. Conditioned Stimulus
    stimulus evokes a response after conditioning
  15. Conditioned Response
    learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
  16. Operants
    deliberate actions
  17. Operant Conditioning
    learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or rewards
Card Set
PSY 300 - Quiz 2
Educational Psychology