Philosophy 3

  1. What is the Cast of Millions argument?
    The population of India runs the conversation program of Al. Therefore, according to Peter, that means that Al doesn't understand what he is saying.
  2. Who is the original author of the Cast of Millions Argument?
    Ned Block
  3. What is Mary's reply to the Cast of Millions argument?
    Even our body takes a number of single-celled organisms to function as one whole, just like a colony of ants. So does this population for the functioning of Al.
  4. What is the Chinese Box Argument?
    Someone outside a box asks questions in Chinese to someone inside a box who is able to answer these questions because of a book with a series of if and then statements
  5. What conclusions does Peter draw on the basis of this argument?
    • 1. The guy inside the box appears to understand Chinese to the guy outside the box; therefore, the Turing test is flawed.
    • 2. A computer is spitting out info just like the man in the box; therefore, the computer doesn't really understand what it is saying.
  6. What's the difference between someone who understands what they are saying and AL, according to Peter?
    Unlike Al, humans have the inner experience of understanding.
  7. What is Mary's objection to Peter's account of the difference between what humans understand and what Al understands?
    How can you tell if anything besides yourself has this inner feeling?
  8. What is Solipsism?
    The idea that my mind is the only mind in the universe or atleast the only mind I can know about.
  9. What is Peter and Mary's response to Al having original thoughts?
    • Peter- All of Al's thoughts trace back to it's orginial, human programmers.
    • Mary- All our ideas trace back to our more pimitive evolutionary ancestors...How do we know that our thoughts are original?
  10. What is qualitative identity?
    You and your twin... Share properties but are not the same.
  11. What is numerical identity?
    The same exact thing. Ex: Nalgene Bottle.
  12. What is Sam's soul theory of personal identity?
    X and Y are the same person if and only if X and Y have the same soul.
  13. What is Dualism?
    The concept that our mind has a non-material, spiritual dimension that includes consciousness and possibly an eternal attribute.
  14. Who is Descartes?
    The first to bring up the idea of Dualism
  15. What is Gretchen's problem with the Soul Theory?
    How can we recognize that the same soul is present at 2 different times if we cannot directly perceive it?
  16. What is Gretchen's objection to Sam's priniciple "Same body, same soul"?
    How do you know? 1. It's not trye that souls and body always stay together: religion. 2. it is impossible to establish by simple observation. (box of chocolates)
  17. Gretchen's box of chocolates analogy.
    There is no way of knowing what is inside the box of chocolates unless you open it up and look at it and you cannot look at a soul.
  18. What is Gretchen's objection to Sam's "same psychological traits/characteristics, same soul"?
    Different sould could exhibit the same psychological traits. Ex: Blue river analogy.
  19. Blue River Analogy
    Just because the observable stuff is the same doesn't mean the unobservable stuff is too.
  20. What is Gretchen's response to Sam's "I can know that in my own coase, the same soul is staying witht the same body"?
    • 1. Just because it's true in your case, doesn't mean it is in everyone's.
    • 2. Can you really see your own soul? What does it look like?
  21. What is Gretchen's body theory of personal identity?
    Same body = Same person.
  22. What are Sam's objections to the body theory?
    • 1. I know who I am before I open my eyes and look at my own body.
    • 2. I can imagine waking up and having a completely different body.
  23. What are "person stages"?
    Two person stages are stages of the same person if and only if...
  24. What is the memory theory of personal identity?
    The later stage can remember the actions, thoughts, and feelings of the earlier stage.
  25. Gretchen's claim that the memory theory of personal identity is circular.
    Defines personal identity in terms of real memory and then defines real memory in terms of personal identity.
  26. How does Dave respond to the circular argument?
    A real memory is a memory that was "caused in the right way"
  27. Gretchen's "heaven fission case"
    What happens if God puts my memories into 2 different bodies in heaven.
  28. Leibniz's Law
    If A=B, then at any given moment A & B must share all the same properties.
  29. Transitivity of Identity?
    If A=B & B=C, than A=C.
  30. Dave's final version of the memory theory.
    • 1. The later stage has real memories of being the former stage
    • 2. there is no splitting in the series of person stages
  31. Dave's case of Julia North
    This person has Julia North's brain and Mary Frances' body.
  32. Gretchen's objection to Julia North.
    This person is Mary, she just has a lot of fake memories of being Julia.
  33. What do you mean when you say "I hope I survive" according to Dave?
    • Body theory: i hope this same living body exists in the future
    • Memory theory: i hope someone in the future remembers my plans and tries to carry them out
Card Set
Philosophy 3
Philosophy Exam 3: Personhood and Personal Identity