Chapter 9

  1. phonology
    learning speech sounds

    rules govening the structure and sequence of speech sounds
  2. Semantics
    the way underlying concepts are expressed in words and word combination
  3. Parsing
    • dissecting the speech stream
    • stressed phonemes

    knowing how to seperate sounds such as :

    Pretty= pret-ty
  4. Grammar
    Consists of syntax and morphology
  5. Syntax
    rules by which words are arranged into sentences
  6. mlu= mean length utterance
    when studying language, how many meaning units someone produces when they say something
  7. morphology
    individual meaning units

    the use of grammatical markers indicating number, tense, case, person, gender, active or passive voice
  8. pragmatics
    rules for engaging in appropriate and effective communication
  9. Language acquisition device
    a system that permits children to combine words into grammatically consistent novel utterances and to understand the meaning of the sentences they hear.
  10. Broca's Area
    supports grammatical processing and language production

    located in the frontal lobe
  11. Wernicke's area
    plays a role in comprehending word meaning

    located in the left temporal lobe
  12. phonemes
    individual speech sounds

    the smallest sound units that signal a change in meaning
  13. cooing
    vowel like sounds
  14. babbling
    constant like sounds
  15. joint attention
    the child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver
  16. protodeclarative
    the baby points to, touches, or holds up an object while looking at others to make sure they notice
  17. protoimperative
    the baby gets another person to do something by reaching, pointing, and making sounds at the same time.
  18. Describe the role parent-child relationship plays in language development
    Caregivers who respond sensitively and involve infants in dialogue-like exchanges encourage early language progress. However, in some cultures this does not happen and children acquire language at the same time frame. Early in the second year, adults labeling child gesturual communication helps chlidren learn to use languge early.
  19. Fast-mapping
    children can connect a new word with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter
  20. Referential Style
    Children's vocabularies consist mainly of words that refer to objects
  21. Expressive Style
    children produce many more social formulas and pronouns such as thank you and "done"
  22. Underextension
    Apply words to narrowly.
  23. Overextension
    applying a word to a broader collection of objects and events than is appropriate
  24. Syntactic Bootstrapping
    Children's discover many word meanings by observing how words are used in syntax or the structure of sentences
  25. Telegraphic Speech
    focusing on high content words and omit smaller less important ones
  26. Overregularization
    Applying a regular morphological rule but extending it to words that are exceptions such as saying "my toy breaked" or " i have two foots"
  27. Semantic bootstrapping
    group words with agent qualities (things that cause actions) and words with action qualities (verbs)
  28. Metalinguistic awareness
    the ability to think about language as a system
  29. Code switching
    bilingual children often produce an utterance in one language that contains one or more guest words from the other
Card Set
Chapter 9
test 2