# Thermo, set 2

 Simple system the effects of motion, viscosity, fluid shear, capillarity, anisotropic stress, and external force fiels are ABSENT homogeneous substance has uniform thermodynamic properties throughout is said to be homogeneous pure substance a homogeneous and invariable chemical composition and may exist in more than on phase. Include, water, mixture of liquid and water vapor, CO2, N2, mixture of gases, etc. liquids molecules are not fixed positions relative to each other, can rotate and translate freely. The intermolecular forces are weaker relative to solids. solids atoms or molecules arranged in three-dimensional patterns gases molecules are far apart from each other and molecular order is nonexistent compressed liquid (subcooled liquid) - not about to vaporize saturated liquid about to vaporize, at temperature when liquid beings to boil latent heat the amount of energy absorbed or released during phase-change process Superheated state Temperature is greater than the saturated temperature for the given pressure, and vapor is NOT about to condense vacuum cooling temperature of chamber is constant until saturation pressure is reached (3.17 kPa at 25 C), then saturation conditions are mainated at progressively lower pressures and correspond to lower temperatures, until desired temp is reached T-V phase diagram property diagram for phase-change process critical point when the saturated liquid and saturated vapor state are identical, phase change is indistinguishable. At temp/pressure above this point, the phase changes are no longer discrete triple point pressure and temperature of a substance exist in three phases of equilibrium sublimation at low pressure (below triple-point), solids evaporate before melting Work energy transfer of force acting through a distnace. Depends on path of process. Power Work over a unit of time (kJ/s, or kW) Moving Boundary work W > 0: work done by the system (expansion)W < 0: work done on the system (compression) Wb = ∫ P dV Area under PV curve is boundary work Cycle work net work during a cycle, difference btwn work done by and on the system.Depends on path and end states.Point function: ∫ dP = P - P = 0path functions: ∫dW = ∫ PdV ¹ 0 Internal Energy U total energy (kinetic and potential) in a systemIncludes chemical bonds, intermolecular attractions, electrons, etc. heat capacity amount of energy required to increase the temperature of a substance by 1o C (ext. prop) Molar heat capcity; 1 mol by 1o C Specific heat capacity; 1 g by 1o C AuthorKatieMac ID4938 Card SetThermo, set 2 DescriptionChemical Engineering Updated2010-03-13T14:45:12Z Show Answers