State the structures of the Outer ear and it's function.
- Pinna external flap cartilage & collects the sound waves.
- External auditory meatus- opening of auditory canal.
- Auditory Canal- tube shape and lead to the tympanic membrane, it carries the sound waves toward the middle ear.
What are the parts of the Pinna?
- Helix- folded portion.
- Tragus- lead toward the lobe
State the structures of the middle ear and their functions.
- 1. Typmanic membrane (eardrum)- separates external from middle ear
- Vibrates in response to sound waves.
- 2. Ossicles (tiny bones) malleus, incus, stapes
What is the medical term for the tympanic membrane?
State the structures of the inner ear.
- Oval Window
- Round Window
- Cochlea(snail like structure)
- The entire inner ear is filled with auditory fluid (perilymph & endolymph)
Which structure is described as the "organ of hearing"?
Organ of Corti
State the structures lined with ceruminous glands and function of cerumen.
- The auditory canal is lined with cerumen glands.
- Cerumen (earwax) filters, lubricates and protects the ear from dirts, dust and microbes.
State the function of eustachian tube with reference to tympanic membrane.
- The auditory tube that connects the midde ear to the throat.
- It helps maintain equal pressure on both sides of eardrum.
What structures are responsible for maintenance of equilibrium? Where?
- The Semicircular canal, Utricle and Saccule are responsible for equilibrium
- In the inner ear.
Trace sound waves from pinna to temporal lobe of the brain.
- External auditory Meatus
- Auditory Canal
- Tympanic membrane
- Ossicles(malleus, incus,stapes)
- Oval window
- Auditory fluids
- Organ of Corti
- Nerve with many names
- Temporal lobe of brain
Ringing in ear
- Decrease in hearing due to aging
- loss of hair (cilia) in the organ of corti
- Fusion of the 3 main bones of middle ear, related with aging
- movement of stapes is restricted
Removal of the stapes because of otosclerosis
Define Meniere's Syndrome
- An inner-ear syndrome increased auditoy fluid characterized by attacks of vertigo, tinnitus and nausea.
- No cure
- Diuretics(water pills) often used to drain fluids.
Define Auditory agnosia
- Lack of understanding spoken words.
- Hearing is fine
Define Otitis media
- Is a middle ear infection. (inflammation of the middle ear)
- Fluid involved is serous and purulent(pus)
- Tubes are used in treatment to equalie pressure
Describe the appearance of Normal eardrum
Very thin, beige, shiny
What is the appearance of an infected eardrum?
What is the appearance of the eardrum with fluid behind it:
What is the medical term for an ear specialist?
- Units for measuring the relative intensity of sounds on a scale from 0 to 130.
- Number of regularly occuring soundwaves.
The folded portion of the pinna
- Medical term for pain in ear.
- Surgical puncture of the tympanic membrane, as for the removal of fluid or the drainage of pus(purulent).
- Also called myringotomy.
The instrument used to perform the examination of the ear:
The auditory nerve has many names?
Vestibulocochlear, Auditory, Acustic, Cochlear, VIII Cranial
- Hardened earwax, impaired hearing, tinnitus
- irrigation used to loosen plug
- Inflammatin of the semicircular canals
- vertigo, nausea, impaired hearing, tinnitus
- treatment: antibotic for bacterial and corticosteroids for viral infection
- Impaired hearing caused by extended exposure to high noise levels
- (jackhammer, siren, gunshot, jet engines)
- Treatment: prevention damage is irreversible
- Inflammation of the outer ear (swimmer's ear)
- impaired hearing, pain, fever
- Treatment: antibiotic, steriod drops
Ruptured tympanic membrane
- Scarring & impaired hearing
- Treatment: antibiotics for otitis media