How people apply human labor and technology to natural reaources.
Features of the environment
Consist of sunlight, rainfall, soil quality, forests, and mineral deposits.
Concerned with cultural and biological responses that affect or are affected by the survival, reproduction, and health and spatial distribution of human populations.
The upper limit on production and population in a given environment under a given technology, without degrading the resource base.
Point of diminishing return
The point at which the amount of food produced per unit of effort begins to fall.
Refers to an increase in labor output (using more people, working longer hours, or working faster) to produce greater yields without expanding the amount of land used
Max sustainable yield
Defined as the level of production immediately prior to the point of diminishing return.
Liebigs law of the minimum
That a population will be limited by critical resources that are in the shortest supply.
Optimal foraging theory
Predicts that hunters or collectors will pursue or harvest only those species that give them the maximum energy return for the time spent foraging.
Slash and burn farming
Requires large stretches of fallow land because long periods are necessary for the soil to be replenished.
Peoples who raise domesticated animals and who do not depend on hunting, gathering, or planting their own crops for a significant portion of their diets. Typically occupy arid grasslands and steppes where precipitation is too sparse or irregular to support rainfall agriculture and where water for irrigation is not available.
A form of pastoralism organized around the seasonal migration of livestock between mountain pastures in warm seasons and lower altitudes the rest of the year.
Associated with migrations that follow established routes over vast distances.
The practice of giving and receiving valued objects and services.
Mutual gift giving among people of equal status. No need for immediate return, no calculation of the value of services or products exchanged, overt denial that a balance is being calculated or that a balance must come out even.
The choices that people make that they believe will provide the greatest benefit to them.
Involves the expectation that goods or services of equivalent value will be returned within a specified period of time.
The Kula ring
A system of exchange in the Trobriand islands where trading partners from diff. islands take risky voyages to exchange shell ornaments around the ring of islands. Bracelets traded in counterclockwise; necklaces traded in clockwise direction.
The pooling of materials together and everyone contributes something. It then gets redistributed according to either an Egalitarian system, or Stratified system.
One of the most important elements of reciprocity. By Consanguine (blood related) or by Affines (marriage related).
Male provider of DNA.
Female provider of DNA.
Male social parent
Female social parent
The belief that certain persons are responsible for the creation, birth and nurturance of certain children.
Are made of Unilineal or Cognatic kin groups.
Unilineal Descent rules
Restrict parental links exclusively to males or to females.
Cognatic Descent rules
Use both male and female parentage to establish any of the previously mentioned duties, rights and privelages.
The reckonong of kinship evenly and symmetrically along maternal and paternal links in ascending and descending generations through individuals of both sexes.
The reckoning of kinship through either maternal or paternal links, depending on which kin group provides greater opportunities.
Requires that ego follow the ascending and descending genealogical links through males only.
Requires that the ego follow the ascending and descending links through females only.
Patterned ways in which the members of a society think, feel and behave.