Anthro test 3

  1. Energy capturing technology
    How people apply human labor and technology to natural reaources.
  2. Features of the environment
    Consist of sunlight, rainfall, soil quality, forests, and mineral deposits.
  3. Ecological anthropology
    Concerned with cultural and biological responses that affect or are affected by the survival, reproduction, and health and spatial distribution of human populations.
  4. Carrying capacity
    The upper limit on production and population in a given environment under a given technology, without degrading the resource base.
  5. Point of diminishing return
    The point at which the amount of food produced per unit of effort begins to fall.
  6. Intensification
    Refers to an increase in labor output (using more people, working longer hours, or working faster) to produce greater yields without expanding the amount of land used
  7. Max sustainable yield
    Defined as the level of production immediately prior to the point of diminishing return.
  8. Liebigs law of the minimum
    That a population will be limited by critical resources that are in the shortest supply.
  9. Optimal foraging theory
    Predicts that hunters or collectors will pursue or harvest only those species that give them the maximum energy return for the time spent foraging.
  10. Slash and burn farming
    Requires large stretches of fallow land because long periods are necessary for the soil to be replenished.
  11. Pastoralist
    Peoples who raise domesticated animals and who do not depend on hunting, gathering, or planting their own crops for a significant portion of their diets. Typically occupy arid grasslands and steppes where precipitation is too sparse or irregular to support rainfall agriculture and where water for irrigation is not available.
  12. Transhumance
    A form of pastoralism organized around the seasonal migration of livestock between mountain pastures in warm seasons and lower altitudes the rest of the year.
  13. Nomadic pastoralism
    Associated with migrations that follow established routes over vast distances.
  14. Exchange
    The practice of giving and receiving valued objects and services.
  15. Generalized reciprocity
    Mutual gift giving among people of equal status. No need for immediate return, no calculation of the value of services or products exchanged, overt denial that a balance is being calculated or that a balance must come out even.
  16. Economizing
    The choices that people make that they believe will provide the greatest benefit to them.
  17. Balanced reciprocity
    Involves the expectation that goods or services of equivalent value will be returned within a specified period of time.
  18. The Kula ring
    A system of exchange in the Trobriand islands where trading partners from diff. islands take risky voyages to exchange shell ornaments around the ring of islands. Bracelets traded in counterclockwise; necklaces traded in clockwise direction.
  19. Redistribution
    The pooling of materials together and everyone contributes something. It then gets redistributed according to either an Egalitarian system, or Stratified system.
  20. Kinship
    One of the most important elements of reciprocity. By Consanguine (blood related) or by Affines (marriage related).
  21. Genitor
    Male provider of DNA.
  22. Genetrix
    Female provider of DNA.
  23. Pater
    Male social parent
  24. Mater
    Female social parent
  25. Descent
    The belief that certain persons are responsible for the creation, birth and nurturance of certain children.
  26. Descent Rules
    • Are made of Unilineal or Cognatic kin groups.
    • Unilineal
    • Patrilineal
    • Matrilineal

    • Cognatic
    • Bilateral
    • Ambilineal
  27. Unilineal Descent rules
    Restrict parental links exclusively to males or to females.
  28. Cognatic Descent rules
    Use both male and female parentage to establish any of the previously mentioned duties, rights and privelages.
  29. Bilateral descent
    The reckonong of kinship evenly and symmetrically along maternal and paternal links in ascending and descending generations through individuals of both sexes.
  30. Ambilineal Descent
    The reckoning of kinship through either maternal or paternal links, depending on which kin group provides greater opportunities.
  31. Patrilineal Descent
    Requires that ego follow the ascending and descending genealogical links through males only.
  32. Matrilineal descent
    Requires that the ego follow the ascending and descending links through females only.
  33. Culture
    Patterned ways in which the members of a society think, feel and behave.
Card Set
Anthro test 3
Anthro test 3