Psychology Test 3

  1. What is the facial feedback hypothesis?
    • Your muscles in your face that make facial expressions
    • If you make expression, you will start to feel the expression
  2. What are the display rules?
    • norms for the control of emotional expression
    • How much emotion?
    • When it is appropriate?
    • Who is it okay to express emotion to?
    • These rules apply mostly to woman- cover face- than to men
    • hand gestures
  3. What is emotion deception?
    • Morphology- look of the muscles in the face- false smile vs. genuine smile- genuine=eyes crinkle
    • Symmetry- cover the whole face (both sides)- contempt
    • Duration- genuine smile is a longer duration usually- suprise is short
    • Temporal patterning
  4. Eating
    • Ghrelin- hunger chemical produced in stomach and then goes to the brain to tell the brain when it is hungry
    • Leptin- We are satisfied- chemical that tells us that we aren't hungry
    • Lateral hypothalamus- top of brain- experience hunger
    • Ventromedial Hypothalamus- underside of brain- turns off hunger
  5. What are some common eating disorders?
    • Bulimia nervose- binging and purging
    • Anorexia nervose- not eating
    • Obesity- overeating, high BMI (weight/ height)
  6. What happens in prenantal development?
    Germinal stage, embryonic stage, fetal stage, viability
  7. What happens during the germinal stage?
    • fetelization through 2 weeks
    • zygote- fertilized egg
    • Pregnancy starts at germinal stage- not fertilization
    • 1/2 of fertilized eggs don't make it to pregnancy- rough estimate because you don't know your pregnant
  8. What happens during the embryonic stage?
    • 2 weeks through 2 months
    • embryo
  9. What happenes during the fetal stage?
    • 2 months through birth
    • Developing the baby
  10. What is viability?
    • Ability to survive outside of the mothers woumb
    • 26 weeks is when most babies survive
  11. What are Terotogens?
    • Birth defects
    • Fetal Alcohol syndrome- physical effects- small eyes, thin upper lip, gorve between nose and mouth is gone, small head, small eyes
    • Toxoplasmosis- fish (mercury), found in cat litter
  12. What is motor development?
    • Occurs about 6 months after birth
    • Rooting reflex- rub cheek, baby will turn head and try to suck on your finger
    • Moro Reflex- Startle reflex- stretch out but pull in and cry- happenes when you bounce the baby
    • Grasp reflex- babies hand grasps yours
    • Babinski Reflex- stroke bottom of foot, toes will spread out
  13. What is the cephalocaudal rule?
    head to foot- Development starts at lifting head and moves to walking
  14. What is the proximodistal rule?
    close to far- lift up chest and move fingers later
  15. What is sensorimotor?
    • Cognitive Development
    • 1.) sensorimotor- birth through 2 years- sensory to motor response (Feel to reaction)
    • Schemas- Our understanding of the way the world works
    • Assimiliation- apply our schemas to a new situation
    • Accomidation- mistaking cat for dog and revising schemas
    • Object permenance- Out of sight out of mind
    • Habituation- look at where baby stares and for how long
  16. What is pre-operational?
    • Cognitive development
    • 2.) Pre-operational- 2 years to 6 years old
    • Conservation- don't understand changing shapes
    • Egocentrism/ theroy of mind- can't put themselves into other peoples persepectives
    • Adults- good because people don't notice our flaws
    • Theory of mind- developing understanding that we all have minds but different knowledge and opinion
  17. What is concrete operational
    • Cognitive development
    • 3.) Age 6 through 11
    • shape doesnt change persepective- able to translate and reverse equation
  18. What is formal operational
    • Cognitive development
    • 4.) Age 11 and older
    • Think more abstractly
    • Adolescent bruding- philisophical thinking- moodiness
  19. Who is Jean Piaget?
    Researcher who played with kids to develop the 4 stages of cognitive development
  20. Who was Harlow?
    • A monkey that was immediately sperated from its mother
    • Proved that relationship is built by comfort
    • Most animals die from not seeing their mother
    • Imprint- Where mother goes, baby goes- even in humans but not in reptiles
    • Sets young up for future relationships
  21. What is the attachment theory?
    • Stage situation test
    • secure- confident= upset at first, but comforted when mom returns- 60% of toddlers
    • Ambivalent- Swinging emotions- lot's of anxiety and not comforted when mom returns-15%
    • Avoidant- no anxiety-20%
    • Disorganized- no clear pattern-5%
  22. What does temperament mean?
    • Child is born with a particular personality
    • Not the parents fault
    • Kids learn from kids
    • 50% of traits are genetic(nature)
  23. What is Erikson's theory?
    • Each stage of life has an issue
    • Trust vs. mistrust- birth to age 1-do they have a secure attachment with their mother?- nurture
    • Autonomy vs. shame/doubt- age 1 to 3- independence- potty train? no shame/ doubt
    • Initiative vs. guilt- Age 3 to 6- responsibility, ititiative= success, guilt= punishment, good kid vs. bad kid
    • Industry vs. inferiority- age 6 to 12- success vs. compency, compare themselves to other kids
    • Identity vs. confusion- age 12 to 18- identity crisis, group conformity, amish decision
    • Intimacy vs. isolaion- age 19 through 40- intimate relationship or isolated, married people are happier that single people, marriage is harder on woman than men
    • Generativity vs. stagnation- age 40-65- peak of ones career, are you leaving something of value behind you?
    • Integretity vs.despair-age 65 to death, retirement- has life been worth it or worthless?
  24. What is Kohlberg's theory?
    • Moral vs. need
    • Preconventional- consequences= get caught, get punished
    • Conventional- follow the rules- they are there for a reason
    • post conventional- look at underlying principles- Is it okay to break the law for principles?
Card Set
Psychology Test 3
Intro to psychology 101