What is the facial feedback hypothesis?
- Your muscles in your face that make facial expressions
- If you make expression, you will start to feel the expression
What are the display rules?
- norms for the control of emotional expression
- How much emotion?
- When it is appropriate?
- Who is it okay to express emotion to?
- These rules apply mostly to woman- cover face- than to men
- hand gestures
What is emotion deception?
- Morphology- look of the muscles in the face- false smile vs. genuine smile- genuine=eyes crinkle
- Symmetry- cover the whole face (both sides)- contempt
- Duration- genuine smile is a longer duration usually- suprise is short
- Temporal patterning
- Ghrelin- hunger chemical produced in stomach and then goes to the brain to tell the brain when it is hungry
- Leptin- We are satisfied- chemical that tells us that we aren't hungry
- Lateral hypothalamus- top of brain- experience hunger
- Ventromedial Hypothalamus- underside of brain- turns off hunger
What are some common eating disorders?
- Bulimia nervose- binging and purging
- Anorexia nervose- not eating
- Obesity- overeating, high BMI (weight/ height)
What happens in prenantal development?
Germinal stage, embryonic stage, fetal stage, viability
What happens during the germinal stage?
- fetelization through 2 weeks
- zygote- fertilized egg
- Pregnancy starts at germinal stage- not fertilization
- 1/2 of fertilized eggs don't make it to pregnancy- rough estimate because you don't know your pregnant
What happens during the embryonic stage?
- 2 weeks through 2 months
What happenes during the fetal stage?
- 2 months through birth
- Developing the baby
What is viability?
- Ability to survive outside of the mothers woumb
- 26 weeks is when most babies survive
What are Terotogens?
- Birth defects
- Fetal Alcohol syndrome- physical effects- small eyes, thin upper lip, gorve between nose and mouth is gone, small head, small eyes
- Toxoplasmosis- fish (mercury), found in cat litter
What is motor development?
- Occurs about 6 months after birth
- Rooting reflex- rub cheek, baby will turn head and try to suck on your finger
- Moro Reflex- Startle reflex- stretch out but pull in and cry- happenes when you bounce the baby
- Grasp reflex- babies hand grasps yours
- Babinski Reflex- stroke bottom of foot, toes will spread out
What is the cephalocaudal rule?
head to foot- Development starts at lifting head and moves to walking
What is the proximodistal rule?
close to far- lift up chest and move fingers later
What is sensorimotor?
- Cognitive Development
- 1.) sensorimotor- birth through 2 years- sensory to motor response (Feel to reaction)
- Schemas- Our understanding of the way the world works
- Assimiliation- apply our schemas to a new situation
- Accomidation- mistaking cat for dog and revising schemas
- Object permenance- Out of sight out of mind
- Habituation- look at where baby stares and for how long
What is pre-operational?
- Cognitive development
- 2.) Pre-operational- 2 years to 6 years old
- Conservation- don't understand changing shapes
- Egocentrism/ theroy of mind- can't put themselves into other peoples persepectives
- Adults- good because people don't notice our flaws
- Theory of mind- developing understanding that we all have minds but different knowledge and opinion
What is concrete operational
- Cognitive development
- 3.) Age 6 through 11
- shape doesnt change persepective- able to translate and reverse equation
What is formal operational
- Cognitive development
- 4.) Age 11 and older
- Think more abstractly
- Adolescent bruding- philisophical thinking- moodiness
Who is Jean Piaget?
Researcher who played with kids to develop the 4 stages of cognitive development
Who was Harlow?
- A monkey that was immediately sperated from its mother
- Proved that relationship is built by comfort
- Most animals die from not seeing their mother
- Imprint- Where mother goes, baby goes- even in humans but not in reptiles
- Sets young up for future relationships
What is the attachment theory?
- Stage situation test
- secure- confident= upset at first, but comforted when mom returns- 60% of toddlers
- Ambivalent- Swinging emotions- lot's of anxiety and not comforted when mom returns-15%
- Avoidant- no anxiety-20%
- Disorganized- no clear pattern-5%
What does temperament mean?
- Child is born with a particular personality
- Not the parents fault
- Kids learn from kids
- 50% of traits are genetic(nature)
What is Erikson's theory?
- Each stage of life has an issue
- Trust vs. mistrust- birth to age 1-do they have a secure attachment with their mother?- nurture
- Autonomy vs. shame/doubt- age 1 to 3- independence- potty train? no shame/ doubt
- Initiative vs. guilt- Age 3 to 6- responsibility, ititiative= success, guilt= punishment, good kid vs. bad kid
- Industry vs. inferiority- age 6 to 12- success vs. compency, compare themselves to other kids
- Identity vs. confusion- age 12 to 18- identity crisis, group conformity, amish decision
- Intimacy vs. isolaion- age 19 through 40- intimate relationship or isolated, married people are happier that single people, marriage is harder on woman than men
- Generativity vs. stagnation- age 40-65- peak of ones career, are you leaving something of value behind you?
- Integretity vs.despair-age 65 to death, retirement- has life been worth it or worthless?
What is Kohlberg's theory?
- Moral vs. need
- Preconventional- consequences= get caught, get punished
- Conventional- follow the rules- they are there for a reason
- post conventional- look at underlying principles- Is it okay to break the law for principles?