What are the imputs for light reaction?
Where does the light reaction take place?
In the chloroplasts, on the thylakoid membrane.
What's the thylakoid Membrane?
A green substance in the chloroplast, that is responsible for light reaction.
What is photosynthesis?
An anabolic pathway that takes raw materials, and converts them into sugar.
What are the 2 types of energy?
- Kinetic. Like bonds, and gravity.
- Potential. Like movement, or heat.
What are the imputs for dark reaction?
- CO2, from the air.
- ATP, from light reaction.
- NADPH, also from the light reaction.
What is ATP?
Adenine Triphosphate, which is an energy source for plants and animals.
The part of the cholorplasts were the dark reaction takes place is called, the what?
What is the stroma?
A clear fluid. The part of the chloroplasts were the dark reaction takes place.
What is the Granum?
It is the structure that makes up the thylakoid membrane (it is tower shaped).
What is photosynthesis in graph form?
What is ADP?
What is the formula for dark reaction?
Explain light reaction?
- H2O goes in.
- Photons are absorbed by the thylakoid.
- The thylakoid takes NADP, H2O and produces ATP and NADPH.
- Oxygen is the waste product.
Explain dark reaction?
- ATP, NADPH, and CO2 go into the stroma.
- NADP, ADP and sugar come out the stroma.
What is the formula for light reaction?
The dark reaction is also called, what?
The Calvin Cycle
What are the 3 types of photosynthetic adaptations?
What are characteristics of C3 plants?
- 85% of plants are C3 exclusively.
- All Parts of photosynthesis take place in the same space at the same time.
- They have trouble dealing with heat.
What is photorespiration?
When the plant is deprived of CO2, due to heat.
What is the phyisical cause of respiration?
The stomata closes to prevent loss of water, and haults photosynthesis, essentially choking the plants from lack of CO2.
What is the downside of a C3 plant?
What is a C4 plant?
A C4 plant avoids photorespiration by storing carbon(C) in its bundle sheath cells, in the form of malic acid.
Examples are corn, and crab grass.
What is a CAM palnt?
- A CAM plant does light reaction during the day, and closes its stomata.
- Dark reaction happens at night.
- Its is the most resilient photosynthesis technique, but also the least efficent.
Examples are the cactus and orchid.
What is cell metabolism?
The summary of all the chemical reactions in the plant.
What is cell respiration?
The cellular process that turns potential energy into kinetic energy.
What are the 2 types of metabolism?
- Primary: Criticle for survival.
- For example, Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
- Secondary: Not criticle for survival.
- For example, defense, structual support, and the reproductive cycle.
What are the 4 important MACRO molecules?
Carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
What are examples of sugars?
- Glucose=The most basic.
- Fructose=Modified form of glucose.
- Sucrose=1 glucose, and 1 fructose.
- Maltose=2 glucose stuck together.
- Long chains of glucose form starch, and cellulose AKA cell walls.
Carbs are made of what?
Carbons and water.
What are lipids?
Hydro carbons(organic) form fats, waxes, steroids, vitamins, cell membranes, hormones, pigments AKA chlorophyll.
What are phospholipids?
Cell wall and cell membranes.
What is a steroid?
A hormone with 4 carbon rings.
What kind of MACRO molecule is hydrophobic?
What is pigment?
A hydrophobic substance that si the source of color in plants, wether from chlorophyll or flower color.
What trace metal does chlorophyll require?
MG or magnesium.
What is anthocyanin?
Pigments responsible for the blue, red, and yellows in plants.
What base elements due proteins use?
- Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen.
What are amino acids?
A simple organic compound containing both carboxyl and and amino group.
They occur naturally in plant and animal tissue and forms the basic constituents of proteins.
What are enzymes?
Proteins that facilitate chemical reactions.
Without enzymes chemical reaction cannot take place quick enough to support life.
Were does cell respiration take place?
what are the 3 steps in cell respiration?
- Kreb cycle
- Electron Transport Chain (E.T.C.)
What is glycolysis?
The anarobic part of cell respiration.
What is the Kreb cycle?
The first part of cell respiration that requires oxygen, produces 24 ATP.
What is the Electron Transport Chain or E.T.C?
The final stage of creating ATP from sugar.
It is the most efficent.
What is the chemical formula for cell respiration?
This breaks sugar down into useable energy.
What are plant hormones?
Chemical messengers, from one cell to another.
What are auxins?
They affect cell elongation, apical dominence, ovary maturation, active transport.
What are the hormones for directional growth?
Auxins and ethylene.
What is G.A. or giberic acid?
It promotes internode growth, increases fruit growth, and promotes germination.
What are cytokinins?
They promote cell division and delay aging.
What are brassinosteroids?
They are a class of polyhydroxysteroids that have been recongized as a 6th class of plant hormones.
What is A.B.A or Abscisic acid?
It fuctions in many plant developmental processes, including bud dormancy (important part in plant responses to environmental stress and plant pathogens).
What is ethylene?
It accelerates plant riping, and turns starch into sugar, and softens cell wells.
What is tropism?
Its plant growth toward or away from a stimulai.
What is phototropism?
attraction to light.
What is plant nutrition?
The study of chemical elements that are nessacary for growth.
How many essential elements are there?
What is a MACRO nutrient?
>0.1% dry matter
What is a MICRO nutrient?
<0.1% dry matter.
What are the 3 primary MACRO nutrients?
- Nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus.
What are the atomospheric gases?
What si the nitrogen cycle?
What is a benefit of composting?
returns assimilated nitrogen to the soil.
Rizobium bacteria converts N02?
- It is a nitrifying process.
- It is present in Legume plants.
- It is an example of a mutualism relationship.
How can you supplement N02?
From fertilizers, and its a natural by-product of decomposition.
How can you spot a N02 defficientcy?
Restricted growth and yellowing of the leaves also known as chlorosis.
What are some of the characteristics of phosphorus supplements?
It stimulates root and plant growth, maturity and blooming.
Dirvied from unnatural fertilizers such as phosphate.
What are some of the characteristics of potassium supplements?
- Potassium nitrate, potassium phosphate.
- Ash from burning wood.
- It acts as a catalyst or activator of enzhymes.
- Promotes growth.
What is an example of a deficiencie?
What are some of the ways for nutrient uptake?
- Most elements are taken from the soil through their roots.
- Carbon and C02 through the leaves.
- The stomata is the site for gas exchange.
How does water flow?
How is nutrient uptake in the soil achieved?
Through cation exchange, where root hairs pump positive hydrogen ions into the soil through proton pumps.
The hydrogen ions then displace cations attached to negatively charged soil particles.
What are 2 things are criticle for survival?
What is singal transduction?
The process by which the signal is transmitted from reception to response.
What does mycorrhizae do?
It improves water and nute uptake in the roots.
What is contour plowing?
A soil and H2O conservation strategy used to prevent soil erosion.
What are some of the benefits of organic farming?
It limits the use of:
- inorganic fertilizer
- growth regulators and hormones
- additives and antibiotics
What techniques are good for maintaining soil productivity and controlling pests?
- Crop rotation
- Green Manure
- Biocontrol systems