What is a unigue feature of prophase1?
Tetrad formation or pairing up of homologous pairs
What does complete dominance mean?
- It means to get the dominant phenotype all you need is atleast one dominant allele
- Dominant allele will always be exspressed
What do aerobicrespiration and photosynthesis have in common?
Redox reactions, what gets oxidized in one is going to be reduced in the other.
Light reactions and the calvin cycle what are they and where do they occur?
- They are the two major photosynthetic reactions.
- Light reaction occurs in the thylakoids
- Calvin cycle occurs in the stroma
H20 and Co2 which one goes with with light reaction and which one goes with the Calvin cycle?
- H2o is going into the light reaction, which produces oxygen and ATP and NADPH
- Then the calvin cycle takes that ATP and NADPH and uses co2 to produce G3p
What are grana? Where would you expect to find them?
- Inner chloroplast membrane
What is the absorption spectra?
It is those light wave legths that they are absorbing
What is Action spectrum?
Those wave lengths of light energy that we were getting photosynthetic activity.
What is the main type of photosynthetic pigment?
Which chlorophylls are found in plants?
- In all photosynthetic eukareyotes you will always have chlorophyll A plus a secondary chlorophyll which is chlorophyll B
- Chlorophyll A and B
Which chlorophyll is part of the reaction center?
It includes 2 chlorophylls A's which are called reaction center chlorophyll A's.
What is a photosystem?
A collection of various light absorbing pigments that are attached to a protein thylakoid membrane
What are Photosystems I and II?
- During the normal noncyclic electron flow your using both photosystems.
- During cyclic electron flow you only use photosystem I.
What do P680 and P700 mean?
They refer to reaction under chlorophyll A's, which is there optimal wave length of light they are going to absorb.
What is the only thing produced during cyclic electron flow, which only involves photosystem I?
Noncyclic vs. Cyclic electron flow?
- Noncyclic is the normal light reaction process which involves photosystems IandII
- Cyclic electron flow only involves photosystem I(1) and that very first electron transport chain.
The production of ATP in photosynthesis.
What is Rubisco?
- The most wide spread protien on earth
- the enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of carbon dioxide in the calvin cycle.
What is photorespiration and why does it occur?
It is the harmful process that can occur in hot dry conditions as rubisco becomes an oxygenase that switches from carboxilase to oxygenase.
The three carbon fixation pathways: c3, c4 and Cam?
- c4 and Cam plants are plants that evolved additional pathways to deal with the problem of photorespiration
- The basic photosynthetic pathway is called the c3 pathway which is the calvin cycle
Which one of these is always part of photosynthesis c3, c4 or Cam?which one had the bundle sheeth anatomy?
What precep applies to cell division?
All cells come from previous cells.
Chromatin and chromatin packing?
- The complex of DNA and protien that makeup eukaryotic chromosomes.
- Organization od DNA into chromosomes
Sister chromatids, which cell cycle phase is responsible for them?
- Sister chromotids are two identical copys of the same chromosome.
- They are produced in the S-phase which is part of the cell cycle(interphase)
What is Mitosis?
The division of the nucleus which only takes place in eukaryots.
Division of the cytoplasm.
What are the mitotic phases which equal Mitosis and Cytokinesis?
- telophase and cytokinesis
What are the interphases?
What happen in prophase?
The cromatin coutinues to coil and supercoil, making the chromatin more and more compact. The chromosomes consist of identical paired chromatids.
What happens in Prometaphase?
The nuclear envolope breaks dowm. Kinetochore micotubeles appear and interact with the microtubeles of the spindle, resulting in movement of the chromosomes
What happens in metephase?
the duplicate centromere regions connecting paired chromatids become aligned in plane atthe cells equator.
What happens in anaphase?
- each centromere divides, and new chromosomes( each derived from one member of one of paired chromatids) begin to move toward poles.
- sister chromotids are broken apart
What happens in telophase?
The last stage of mitosis, chromosomes become decondenced, and the nuclear envelope forms around each group.
Mitotic differences between animals and plants?
- Equal division of prokasyotic cell into 2; a type of asexaul reproduction
- Cannot be called mitosis
What are some of the things that regulate the cell cycle?
Cell cycle checkpoints( g1, g2, m checkpoints)
Diploid(2n) vs. Haploid(n)?
- The ploid part of the word refer to chromosome numbers.
- Diploid is two complete sets of chromosomes each set containg 23, so human have 46 chromosomes
- The 2n number refers to the fact that you have one set of chromosomes(23) from dad and one set(23) from mom
- Haploid refer to half that number
Autosomes and sex chromosomes?
- A chromosomes other then the sex chromosomes(X and Y)
- We have 44 or 22 per pair of non sex chromosomes
How many pairs of homologs do females have? male?
- Females have 23(XX)they are all homologous pairs.
- Male have 22(XY).
- Is not directly associated with Meiosis
- The fusion of two n gametes; results in the formation of a 2n zygote
3 types of meiosis?
- 90% of the time is spent here
- tetrads are formed
Who was the father of modern genetics?
A heritable feature.
Variation within a character.
What allelic combination you have at a specific locus.
Position of the gene on the chromosome.
Genes can have more then one form.
A genes consisting of two different.
Two identical copys of the allele.
You dont have two copys, chromosomes dont constitute a homologous pair.
Origanal perantial generation.
the product of the p generation.
the product of the f1 generation.
The dominant allele is going to be completly expressed.
What is the expected phenotype outcome for a monohybrid f2?
What does dihybrid mean?
A genetic cross that takes into account the behavior of alleles of two loci.
How many possible phenotypes for monohybrid and dihybrid crosses?
- Mono - 2 possible dominant or recessive
- Dih - 4 possible phenotypes
Why do you do test crosses?
- Individuals with dominant phenotype under complete dominance you dony know there genotype
- You know that they have atleast one dominant allele but you dont know how many they have.
Chromosome theory of inheritance?
- Genes are located at specific places on the chromosome.
- It is actually the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent assortment as described by Mendel.
- This is sometimes called the Suton and Bovary theory.
Genes that are on the same chromosomes.
Who was responsible for linkage maps?
Sex linkes genes?
Genes located on a sex chromosomes.