Thinking or Cognition
mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others
mental representations that stand for objects or events and have a picture-like quality.
represents a class or category of objects, events or activities.
solving problems by combining ideas or behaviors in new ways.
type of thinking in which the problem only has 1 answer, and all the lines of thinking will eventually lead to one single answer.
type of thinking where a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on the one point.
the ability to learn from ones experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems.
Spearmans "g factor"
the basic ability to reason and solve problems.
Spearmans "s factor"
ability is task specific in certain areas such as music, business, or art.
Gardners Nine Intelligences
- ability to use language
- writers, speakers
ability to compose and or perform music
ability to think logically and to solve mathematical problems
- ability to understand how objects are oriented in space
- pilots, astronauts, artists, navigators
- ability to control one's body motions
- dancers, athletes
- sensitivity to others and understanding motivation to others
- psychologists, managers
- understanding of one's emotions and how they guide actions
- various people-oriented careers
- ability to recognize the patterns found in nature
- farmers, landscapers, biologist
- ability to see the "big picture" of human world by asking question about life or death
- philosophical thinkers
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
- Analytical- ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis for problem solving "book smart"
- Creative- ability to deal with new and different concepts for new ways to solve problems "divergent thinking"
- Practical- ability to use info to get along in life "street smarts"
Binet's Mental Ability Test
french psychologist asked to design a formal test for intelligence for remedial education or not.
came up with test that distinguished between fast and slow learners, Binet added mental age as a factor to the testing.
Stanford-Binet and IQ
- Terman adopted Stern's method of comparing chronological age with the mental age
- IQ=Mental Age/Chronological Age X 100
- was the first to devise a series of tests designed for specific age groups
- these differ because have a verbal, and non-verbal scales as well as overall score of intelligenc.
- Stanford-Binet test didn't have these.
refers to the test producing consistent results each time test is given to same individual or group.
is the degree to which a test actually measures what it's suppose to measure.
Standardization of Tests
refers to the process of giving the test to a large group of people that represents the kind of people for whom test is designed for.
the standards against which all others who take the test are compared.
- the percentages under each section of the normal curve represent the percentage of scores falling within that section of each standard deviation (Wechsler IQ)
- Looks like a "bell curve"
Mental Retardation/Developmentally Delayed
IQ typically falls below 70, and the persons adaptive behavior (ability to work, social, self care) is severely below a level that is appropriate for the persons age.
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disibilities
- 1. intellectual and adaptive behavior skills
- 2. psychological and emotional considerations
- 3. physical and health considerations
- 4. environmental considerations
Causes for MR
environmental factors, familial retardation, fetal alcohol syndrome, fragile X syndrome
Classifications of Developmental Delay
- Mild- IQ 55-70 sixth grade level 90% of population
- Moderate- IQ 40-55 second grade level 6% of population
- Severe- IQ 25-40 can talk and basic care, needs constant supervision 3% of population
- Profound- IQ 25 and less 1% of population
the 2% of population falling under the upper end of normal curve and typically an IQ of 130 or above
IQ 140 or higher, average 1% of population
Lewis Terman Standford University
early longitudinal study "termintes" people had in fact successfully achieved a consistent sense of self, only those with higher IQ 180+ had some social and behavioral adjustment problems.
the awareness of and ability to manage one's own emotions as well as the ability to be self-motivated, to feel what others feel, and be socially skilled.
emotional intelligence is a more powerful influence on success in life than more traditional views of intelligence. One who is emotionally intelligent possesses self-control of emotions and anger, impulsiveness, and anxiety. Empathy, the ability to understand how others feel, and aware of one's own emotions, sensitivity, persistence even in the face of frustrations and the ability to motivate oneself.
Sir Francis Galton Nature vs Nurture Ingelligence
Bouchard Intelligence in twins
What % US developmentally challenged?
Important inTERpersonal component of "emotional intelligence?"
The core element of "emotional intelligence?"
- the greater degree of genetic relatedness the stronger correlation between IQ scores.
- when raised in similar environments, their IQ scores were more similar than when different environments.
Mental activity in brain while processing info is?
Concepts formed as result of everyday experience, which aren't always defined?
When person tries to solve problem same as always have it is?
Not definition of "intelligence
1. ability to adapt
2. ability to solve problems
3. ability to be creative
4. ability to use resources effectively
3. ability to be creative is not part of definition of "intelligence"
AAIDD guidelines state delay related to living in poverty conditions which is a mild retardation level.
Current heritability of intelligence is?