Secrete soluble mediators of inflammation and allergic reactions.
Phagocytic.Active against parasites, but kill worms by release of granule proteins.
Mature, leave blood, enter tissues (macrophages).Largest WBC.Phagocytic.
T and B cells are the mediators of the immune response
Natural killer cells (NK)
Active against virally infected cells. IFN augments activity.
clotting factors.Express soluble mediators of inflammation. Megakarocyte
Endocytotic ingestion of cells, cell fragments and other insoluble materials.
attraction to areas of inflammation and infection.
attachment to microbes.
coating of pathogens with antibodies or complement proteins aids adherence(make easier for cells to eat)
intake to a phagosome or phagocytic vesicle.
with a lysosome, to form a phagolysosome.
by antimicrobial enzymes (or killing by the respiratory burst (high energy, toxic forms of O2).
A non-specific response to physical, chemical, or infectious agents.
Function of inflammation is to
1. Destroy and or remove the injurious agent
2. Confine and limit spread of the agent
3. Repair damaged tissue
5 characteristic manifestations of inflammation
Redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function
3 stages of inflammation 1. Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability.
The exudate causes edema(water leaves tissues) and pain. Histamines, Prostaglandins, and leukotrienes. -vasodilative amines stimulate these phenomenon.
3 stages of inflammation
2. Phagocyte migration and activation.
Margination-phagocytes stick to endothelium (cells lining vessels)
Diapedesis-extravasation to tissues by squeezing between endothelial cells
3 stages of inflammation 3. Tissue repair
A process that cannot be completed until all harmful substances are removed. Clinically, there are many types of inflammation, but they reduce to three groups
Acute inflammation(tissue repair)
short duration (days); clears without scarring.
longer duration (months to years). Elements of acute reaction are seen with repair, and a scar is seen at the site of the lesion.
varying duration, involves the immune system and results in scarring with calcium deposition
Increased body temperature may inhibit microbes and enhance defense mechanisms.
Naturally present or released by cells in response to infection.
an iron-binding protein.Low iron inhibits bacterial growth.
Interferons alpha and beta (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta)
Protects neighbors of virally infected cells.
A family of more than 20 proteins that act together to express multiple activities. An enzyme cascade system generates an attack complex that makes holes in plasma membranes. Complement also aids phagocytosis and enhances inflammation.