1. Respiration involves both
    the respiratory and the circulatory systems
  2. What are the 4 processes that supply the body O2 and dispose of CO2
    • Pulmonary ventilation
    • External ventilation
    • Transport of O2 and CO2 in the blood
    • Internal respiration
  3. Pulmonary ventilation is
    breathing, movement of air in and out of the lungs.
  4. External respiration is
    O2 and CO2 exchange between the lungs and the blood
  5. What is internal respiration?
    O2 and CO2 exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues.
  6. What are the 9 major organs of the respiratory system?
    • Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi and their branches
    • Lungs and alveoli
  7. The site of gas exchange is called the
    respiratory zone
  8. The respiratory zone includes
    Microscopic structures: respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli
  9. What are the conduits to gas exchange sites called?
    Conducting zone
  10. What are the functions of the nose?
    • Provides an airway for respiration
    • Moistens and warms the entering air
    • Filters and cleans inspired air
    • Serves as a resonating chamber for speech
    • Houses olfactory receptors
  11. The nasal cavity superior to the nostrils is called_______________ it has _________________
    • Vestibule
    • Vibrissae (nose hairs) that filter coarse particles from inspired air.
  12. What lines the superior nasal cavity and contains smell receptors?
    Olfactory mucosa
  13. Respiratory mucosa contain
    • Mucous and serous secretions
    • Cilia
  14. Cilia in the nasal cavity move
    contaminated mucus posteriorly to throat
  15. Mucous and serous secretions contain
    lysozyme and defensins
  16. The nasal cavity has three grooves called
    Superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae
  17. Three aspects of nasal conchae
    • Protrude from the lateral walls
    • Increase mucosal area
    • Enhance air turbulance
  18. What are the two functions of the nasal mucosa and conchae?
    During inhalation_________________
    During exhalation___________________
    • Filter, heat and moisten air
    • Reclaim heat and moisture
  19. Functions of the paranasal sinuses
    Lighten the skull and help to warm and moiten the air
  20. Name of the muscular tube that connects to the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly
    Pharynx (throat)
  21. The ____________ and _______________ close the nasopharynx during swallowing
    • Soft palate
    • uvula
  22. The _________________ is the passageway for food and air from the level of the soft palate to the epiglottis
  23. _____________ attaches to the hyoid bone and opens into the laryngopharynx
    The larynx
  24. What are the 3 functions of the larynx?
    • Provides a patent airway
    • Routes air and food into proper channels
    • Voice production
  25. Larynx contains ___________ that contain elastic fibers.
    vocal ligaments
  26. The opening between the vocal ligaments is called the _____________. Folds vibrate to produce sound as air rushes up from the lungs
  27. Vestibular folds of the larynx are called _______________. They are superior to the vocal cords. They play __________-. help to ________________
    • false vocal cords
    • no part in sound production
    • close the glottis during swallowing.
  28. The trachea is also called _______. It extends from the _________________
    • windpipe
    • larynx into the mediastinum
  29. The trachae wall is composed of 3 layers called
    • Mucosa
    • Submucosa
    • Adventitia
  30. Mucosa layer of trachea has
    ciliated pseudostratified epithelium with goblet cells
  31. The adventitia is
    outermost layer of trachea made of connective tissue that encases the C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage
  32. Trachealis muscle connects _______________ and contracts during _________________-
    • posterior parts of cartilage rings
    • coughing to expel mucus
  33. Air passages undergo ____ orders of branching
  34. Branching patterns of of bronchi are called the
    bronchial (respiratory) tree
  35. Right main bronchus is ____________________________ than the left
    wider, shorter and more verticle
  36. Each lobar bronchus branches into
    segmental (tertiary) bronchi
  37. _____________- are the smallest bronchioles, less than 0.5 mm diameter
    terminal bronchioles
  38. Respiratory zone includes
    bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs (clusters of alveoli)
  39. Respiratory membrane is composed of
    alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basements membranes
  40. Alveoli are surrounded by
    fine elastic fibers
  41. Alveoli contain ______________ that connect ______________, allow _________________
    • open pores
    • adjacent alveoli
    • air pressure throughout the lung to be equalized
  42. Alveoli house
    alveolar macrophages that keep alveolar surfaces sterile
  43. What is Boyle's Law?
    Pressure (P) varies inversely with volume (V)
  44. Pulmonary ventilation constists of what two phases?
    • 1. Inspiration: gases flow into the lungs
    • 2. Expiration: gases exit the lungs
  45. Atmospheric pressure is
    • the pressure exerted by the air surrounding the body
    • 760 mm Hg at sea level
  46. Respiratory pressures are described relative to atmospheric pressure
    • Negative respiratory pressure is less than Patm
    • Positive respiratory pressure is greater than Patm
    • Zero respiratory pressure = Patm
  47. Intrapulmonary (intra-alveolar)pressure is pressure __________. It fluctuates with ___________ and always ____________-
    • in the alveoli
    • breathing
    • eventually equalizes with Patm
  48. Intrapleural pressure is _____________. It ______________ and is always _________-
    • pressure in the pleural cavity
    • fluctuates with breathing
    • a negative pressure
  49. Negative intrapleural pressure is caused by
    opposing forces
  50. What are the two inward forces that promote lung collapse?
    • Elastic recoil of lungs decreases lung size
    • Surface tension of alveolar fluid reduces alveolar size
  51. What is the one outward force that tends to enlarge the lungs?
    Elasticity of the chest wall pulls the thorax outward
  52. When volume changes
    pressure changes
  53. When pressure changes
    gases flow to equalize pressure
  54. List factors of the inspiration processes
    • Inspiratory muscles contract
    • thoracic volume increases
    • lungs are stretched and intrapulmonary volume increases
    • Air flows into the lungs down its pressure gradient
  55. List factors of the expiration process
    • Inspiritory muscles relax
    • thoracic cavity volume decreases
    • elastic lungs recoil and intrapulmonary volume decreases
    • pulmonary ventilation rises
    • Air flows out of the lungs down its pressure gradient
  56. Forced expiration is an ______________: it uses ___________________--
    • active process
    • abdominal and internal intercostal mucles
  57. What are the 3 physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation?
    • Airway resistance
    • Alveolar surface tension
    • Lung compliance
  58. Friction is the major
    nonelastic source of resistance to gas flow
  59. Resitance is usually _______ because of ____________- in the first part of the conducting zone and _________________ of airways as they get smaller, increasing the total cross-sectional area
    • insignificant
    • large airway diameters
    • progressive branching
  60. As airway resistance rises
    breathing movements become more strenuous
  61. Severly constricting or obstruction of bronchioles can prevent ______________________ and can occur during _________________-
    • life-sustaining ventilation
    • acute asthma attacks and stop ventilation
  62. Alveolar surface tension attracts _______________ and resists ________________
    • liquid molecules to one another at a gas-liquid interface
    • any force that tends to increase the surface area of the liquid
  63. Lungs secrete _________ a deterdent like lipid and protein complex produced by type II alveolar cells
  64. Surfactant reduces
    surface tension of alveolar fluid and discourages alveolar collapse
  65. Insuficient quantities of ________ in premature infants causes respiratory distress syndrome
  66. ______________ is a measure of the change of lung volume that occurs with a given change in transpulmonary pressure
    Lung compliance
  67. Lung compliance is normally high due to
    • distensibility of the lung tissue
    • Alveolar surface tension
  68. Lung compliance is diminished by
    • Nonelastic scar tissue (fibrosis)
    • Reduced production of surfactant
    • Decreased flexability of the thoracic cage
  69. Four factors used to assess a person's respiratory status
    • Tidal volume
    • Inspiratory reserve volume
    • Expiratory reserve volume
    • Residual volume
  70. List the 4 respiratory capacity assessment values
    • Inspirational capacity
    • Functional residual capacity
    • Vital capacity
    • Total lung capacity
  71. Some inspired air never contributes to gas exchange describes
    Dead space
  72. Anatomical dead space is
    volume of the conducting zone conuits
  73. Alveoli dead space
    alveoli that cease to act in gas exchange due to collapse or obstruction
  74. Total dead space is the sum of
    anatomical dead space and alveolar dead space
  75. A spirometer is
    an instrument used to measure respiratory volumes and capacity
  76. Spirometry can distinguish between
    • obstructive pulmonary disease - increased airway resistance (bronchitis)
    • resitrictive disorders - reduction in total lung capacity due to structural or functional lung changes (fibrosis or TB)
  77. Increases in TLC, FRC, and RV may occur as a result of
    obstructive disease
  78. Reduction in VC, TLC, FRC, and RV result from
    restrictive disease
  79. The alveolar ventilation rate (AV) is
    flow of gases into and out of the alveoli during a particular
  80. To consider external and internal respiration processes, first consider
    • Physical properties of gases
    • Composition of alveolar gas
  81. Dead space is normally
  82. Rapid, shallow breathing decreases
    alveolar ventilation (AVR)
  83. The partial pressure of each gas is
    directly proportional to its percentage in the mixture
  84. What is Dalton's Law of partial pressures?
    Total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted by each gas
  85. What are the 4 gases in alveoli (in order from greatest percentage to least)?
    N2, O2, CO2 and H2O
  86. When a mixture of gases
  87. is in contact with a liquid, each gas will dossolve in the liquid in
    proportion to its partial pressure
  88. At equalibrium
    the partial pressures in the two phases will be equal
  89. The amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid also depends on
    its solubility
  90. CO2is 20 times more soluble than
  91. Very little ________ dissolves in water
  92. Alveoli contain more CO2 and water vapro that atmospheric air, due to
    • Gas exchanges in the lungs
    • Humidification of air
    • Mixing of alveolar gas that occurs with each breath
  93. Exchange of O2 and CO2 across the respiratory membrane describes
    external respiration
  94. External respiration is influenced by
    • partial pressure gradients and gas solubilities
    • Ventilation profusion coupling
    • Structural characteristics of the respiratory membrane
  95. Partial pressure gradient for O2 in the lungs is
  96. Ventilation is
    the amount of gas reaching thhe alveoli
  97. Perfusion is
    blood flow reaching the alveoli
  98. Ventilation and profusion must be ________ for sufficient gas exchange
    matched (coupled)
  99. Changes in Po2 (partial pressure gradient) in the alveoli cause
    changes in the diameters of the bronchioles
  100. Where alveolar CO2 is high
    bronchioles dilate
  101. Where alveolar CO2 is low
    bronchioles constrict
  102. What is the thickness and surface area of the respiratory membrane?
    • .05 to 1 um thick
    • Total surface area (40 times that of one's skin)
  103. Capillary gas exchange in body tissues describes
    Internal respiration
  104. Partial pressures and diffusion gradients are reversed compared to
    external respiration
  105. Po2 in tissue is always
    lower than in systemic arterial blood
  106. Po2 of venous blood is ____________ and Pco2 is ______________
    • 40 mm Hg
    • 45 mm Hg
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