Psychology Test Chapter 6

  1. a partial or complete loss of memory due to loss of conciousness, brain damage, or some psychological cause.
  2. a memory strategy that involves grouping or organizing bits of information into larger units, which are easier to remember.
  3. a physiological change in the brain that allows encoded information to be stored in memory
  4. any disruption in the consolidation process that prevents a long-term memory from forming
    consolidation failure
  5. the oldest theory of forgettting, which holds that memories, if not used, fade with time and ultimately disappear altogether
    decay theory
  6. the subsystem within long-term memory that stores facts, information, and personal life events that can be brought to mind verbally or in the form of images and then declared or stated, also called explicit memory
    declarative memory
  7. with regard to memory, the event that occurs when short-term memory is filled to capacity and each new, incoming item pushes out an exisiting item, which is then forgotten, with regard to behavior, a defense mechanism in which one substitutes a less threatening object or person for the original object of a sexual or aggressive impulse.
  8. the ability to retain the image of a visual stimulus for several minutes after it has been removed from view and to use this retained image to answer questions about the visual stimulus.
    eidetic imagery
  9. a memory strategy that involves relating new information to something that is already known
    elaborative rehearsal
  10. the process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory
  11. the type of declarative memory that records events as they have been subjectively experienced
    episodic memory
  12. an extremely vivid memory of the conditions surrounding one's first hearing the news of a surprising, shocking, or highly emotional event.
    flashbulb memory
  13. the relative inability of older children and adults to recall events from the first few years of life.
    infantile amnesia
  14. a cause of forgetting that occurs because information or associations stored either before or after a given memory hinder the ability to remember it
  15. a model of memory that holds that retention depends on how deeply information is processed
    levels-of-processing model
  16. the memory system with a virtually unlimited capacity that contains vast stores of a persons permanent or relatively permanent memories.
    long-term memory (LTM)
  17. learning in one long practice session without rest periods
    massed practice
  18. forgetting through suppression or repression in order to protect oneself from material that is painful, frightening, or otherwise unpleasant
    motivated forgetting
  19. the subsystem within long-term memory that stores motor skills, habits, and simple classically conditioned responses, also called implicit memory.
    nondeclarative memory
  20. practicing or studying material beyond the point wherre it can be repeated one without error
  21. in memory, the tendency to recall the first items in a sequence more readily than the middle items. in social psychology, the tendency for an overall impression of another to be influenced more by the first information that is recieved about that person that by information that comes later.
    primary effect
  22. the phenomenon by which an earlier encounter with a stimulus or a related stimulus at a later time.
  23. not remembering to carry out some intended action.
    prospective forgetting
  24. a memory task in which a person must produce required information by searching memory
  25. the tendency to recall the last items in a sequence more readily then those in the middle
    recency effect
  26. a memory task in which a person must simply identify material as familiar or as having been encountered before
  27. an account of an event that has been pieced together from a few highlights, using information that may not be accurate.
  28. the act of purposely repeating information to maintain it in short-term memory
  29. a measure of memory in which retention is expressed as the percentage of time saved when material is relearned compared with the time required to learn the material originally
    relearngin method
  30. a defense mechanism in which one involuntary removes painful or threatening memories, thoughts, or perceptions from conciousness, so that one is no longer aware that a painful event occurred or prevents unconcious sexual and aggressive impulsese from breaking into conciousness.
  31. the process of bringing to mind information that has been stored in memory
  32. any stimulus or bit of information that aids in retrieving particular information from long-term memory
    retrieval cue
  33. the integrated frameworks of knowledge and assumptions a person has about people, objects, and events, which effect how the person encodes and recalls information
  34. the type of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, or objective facts and information
    semantic memory
  35. the memory system that holds information from the senses for a period of time ranging from only a fraction of a second to about 2 seconds.
    sensory memory
  36. the finding that for information learned in a sequence, recall is better for the beginning and ending items than for the middle items in the sequence
    serial position effect
  37. the memory system that codes information according to sound and holds about seven (from five to nine) items for less than 30 seconds without rehersal; also calles working memory
    short-term memory (STM)
  38. the process of keeping or maintaining information in memory
  39. a cause of forgetting that occurs when information was never put into long-term memory
    encoding failure
Card Set
Psychology Test Chapter 6
pysch vocab 6