1. what is an injury produced by an external force called?
  2. what can trauma affect?
    crowns and roots of teeth and alveolar bone
  3. what may trauma result in?
    • fractures of teeth and bone
    • injuries (intrusions, extrusions and avulsions)
  4. what is described as breaking of a part?
  5. crown fractures most often involve what teeth?
    anterior teeth
  6. what are some causes of a crown fracture?
    accidental fall or motor vehicle accident
  7. a crown fracture may involve just the ______ or go into the _____
    • enamel
    • pulp
  8. what do radiographs do for crown fractures?
    evaluate the proximity of pulp chamber to fracture and examination of root
  9. what are some causes of a root fracture?
    accident or traumatic blow
  10. where do root fractures most often occur
    maxillary central incisors
  11. a root fracture may involve more than one ____ on a _______ tooth
    • root
    • multi-rooted
  12. t/f a root fracture may appear later
  13. what does a root fracture look like on a radiograph
    sharp radiolucent line
  14. where do jaw fractures most often occur?
  15. what are some causes of a jaw fracture?
    assaults, accidents, sports injuries
  16. what film is recommended to take for a jaw fracture?
    pano film
  17. what does a jaw fracture appear like on a film?
    radiolucent line
  18. maxillary jaw fractures are _____ to detect on a radiograph
  19. trauma may cause ______ of teeth
  20. radiographs are used to evaluate what with injures?
    • root or alveolar bone fractures
    • periodontal ligament damage
    • pulpal problems
  21. what is an abnormal displacement of teeth?
  22. what is a displacement of teeth into the bone?
  23. what is the displacement of teeth out of the bone?
  24. what is a complete displacement of a tooth?
  25. what causes avulsion?
    trauma from assault or accidental fall
  26. what are radiographs helpful for with an avulsion?
    evaluate the socket area and examine for splintered bone
  27. what is physiologic resorption?
    resorption that is seen normally with shedding of primary teeth
  28. what is pathologic resorption?
    regressive alteration of tooth structure cause by abnormal stimuli
  29. what are two types of pathologic resorption
    external and internal resorption
  30. where are external resorptions seen?
    along periphery of root surface
  31. what are 7 causes for external resorption?
    • reimplanted teeth
    • abnormal mechanical forces
    • trauma
    • chronic inflammation
    • tumors or cysts
    • impacted teeth
    • idopathic causes
  32. what does external resorption affect?
    apices (appear blunted)
  33. the ____ appear ____ than normal with external resorption
    • length
    • shorter
  34. with external resorption the _____ _____ and ____ appear normal
    lamina dura and bone
  35. what are some characteristics of external resorption
    • no signs or symptoms
    • not detected clinically
    • not mobile
    • no effective treatment
  36. where does internal resorption occur?
    within the crown or root
  37. what does internal resorption involve (tooth structures)?
    pulp chamber, canals and surrounding dentin
  38. what is the appearance of internal resorption
    round to ovoid radiolucency in midcrown to midroot
  39. internal resorption is usually _________
  40. what is the treatment for internal resorption?
    • RCT if not weakened
    • Extraction
  41. what is diffuse calcification of the pulp chamber and pulp canals that results in a pulp cavity decreased in size?
    pulpal sclerosis
  42. what is pulpal sclerosis associated with?
  43. t/f pulpal sclerosis is clinically significant unless RCT is indicated then its not
    false-pulpal sclerosis is NOT clinically significant unless RCT is indicated then it IS
  44. what is the bodys complete self RC?
    pulpal obliteration
  45. what is it called when traumatic conditions can act as irritants to pulp and stimulate secondary dentin?
    pulpal obliteration
  46. what is the radiographic appearance of pulpal obliteration?
    no pulp chamber or canals
  47. with pulpal obliterations the teeth are ______ and ______ require treatment
    • nonvital
    • don't
  48. what are calcifications found in the pulp chamber or canals?
    pulp stones
  49. what is the cause of a pulp stone?
  50. what is the appearance of a pulp stone?
    round, ovoid, or cylindrical radiopacities
  51. is there treatment required for pulp stones?
  52. pulp stones vary in _____, ____ and _____
    • size
    • shape
    • number
  53. where are periapical lesions located?
    around the apex
  54. periapical lesions may appear ______ or _______
    • radiolucent
    • radiopaque
  55. what are three types of radiolucent periapical lesions?
    granulomas, cysts and abcesses
  56. what are used for diagnosis of periapical radiolucencies
    • clinical features
    • radiographic and microscopic appearances
  57. what is a localized mass of chronically inflamed granulation tissue at the apex of a nonvital tooth?
    periapical granuloma
  58. a periapical granuloma may give rise to what?
    cyst or abcess
  59. a periapical granuloma may be _______ but has a previous history of sensitivity to ____ and ____
    • asymptomatic
    • hot and cold
  60. what is the treatment for a periapical granuloma
    • RCT
    • extraction
    • curettage or apical region
  61. initially on a radiograph the periapical granulama it appears?
    as a widened perio ligament space at apex
  62. over time what does a periapical granuloma look like?
    round or ovoid radiolucency
  63. what is not visible between apex and lesion or a periapical granuloma?
    lamina dura
  64. what is a lesion that develops over a prolonged period and takes place within a granuloma?
    periapical cyst (radicular cyst)
  65. what does a periapical cyst result from?
    pulpal death and necrosis
  66. what type of lesion comprises of 50% - 70% cysts in oral region?
    periapical cyst (radicular cyst)
  67. radiographically what does a periapical cyst appear like?
    round or ovoid radiolucency
  68. what is the treatment for a periapical cyst?
    RCT or extraction
  69. what is a localized collection of pus in the periapical region that results from pulpal death?
    periapical abcess
  70. what may be seen at the apex with a periapical abcess?
    gumboil (parulis)
  71. what are two types of periapical abscesses
    • acute periapical abscess
    • chronic periapical abscess
  72. what is an acute periapical abscess?
    • pus producing process
    • inflammation of pulp or chronic infection
  73. what are the characteristics of acute periapical abscesses?
    • painful, intense, throbbing, constant
    • sensitive to pressure, percussion and heat
  74. is an acute periapical abcess vital or nonvital
  75. early signs of an acute periapical abscess show what?
    widening of ligament space
  76. what is a long standing, low grade, pus producing process?
    chronic periapical abscess
  77. what may a chronic periapical abscess develop from?
    acute abscess or granuloma
  78. why is a chronic periapical abscess usually asymptomatic?
    because pus drains through bone or the periodontal ligament space
  79. what does a chronic periapical abscess look like
    round or ovoid radiolucency with poorly defined margins
  80. what cannot be seen with a chronic periapical abscess
    lamina dura cannot be seen between root apex and lesion
  81. what results from a bacterial infection within the walls of the periodontal tissues?
    periodontal abscess
  82. what does a periodontal abscess result from?
    preexisting periodontal condition
  83. what is the most common symptom of a periodontal abscess
  84. what is the recommended treatment for aperidontal abscess
    deep scaling and debridement
  85. if you brought a pt in to do quad scaling but you didn't get all of the bacteria out of the pocket what will happen when you send the pt away?
    it will heal over the bacteria and get infected
  86. what are the three types of periapical radiopacities?
    • condensing osteitis (chronic focal sclerosis osteomyelitis)
    • sclerotic bone ( osteosclerosis or idiopathic periapical osteosclerosis)
    • hypercementosis
  87. what is a well defined radiopacity seen below the apex of a nonvital tooth with a history of pulpitis
    condensing osteitis
  88. a condesing osteitis does not appear to be ______ to the tooth root
  89. _____ _____ is needed for condensing osteities
    no treatment
  90. what is a well defined radiopacity seen below the apices of a vital noncarious tooth?
    sclerotic bone
  91. what are the causes for sclerotic bone?
  92. sclerotic bone is _____ ____ to the tooth
    not attached
  93. t/f sclerotic bone is symptomatic
  94. what is excess deposition of cementum on root surfaces
  95. what does hypercementosis result from?
    supraeruption, inflammation or trauma or no cause
  96. what is the appearance of hypercementosis
    apex area may appear enlarged or bulbous
  97. t/f hypercementosis teeth are vital and require no treatment
Card Set
interpretation of trauma and pulpal and periapical lesions