the breaking of a part that may affect the crowns and roots of teeth, or the bones of the maxilla and mandible
Which area do crown fractures most often involve?
What do most crown fractures result from?
accidental falls or motor vehicle accidents
true or false. crown fractures may involve just the enamel or go all the way to the pulp.
What do radiographs allow views of considering crown fractures?
evaluation of proximity of pulp chamber to fracture and examination of root
Less common than crown fractures and usually can result from an accident or traumatic blow.
Where are root fractures most often found?
Maxillary central incisors
true or false. Root fractures may involve more than one root on multi-rooted teeth
How does a root fracture appear if the x-ray beam is parallel with the plane of the fracture?
a sharp radiolucent line
Why might root fractures be overlooked? And then be identified later on a radiograph?
If x-ray beam is not parallel with the fracture, adjacent areas of tooth structure might obscure the fracture sight and hide it
root fractures enlarge over time and might then be identified on a radiograph
What type of fractures occur more often then fractures of any other bone of the face?
jaw fractures (mandible)
What are 3 main reasons for jaw fractures?
What is the film of choice to evaluate mandibular fractures?
How does a mandibular fracture appear on a radiograph?
true or false. Maxillary fractures are hard to see on a radiograph
In addition to fractures, trauma may result in________________of teeth
What are 3 things that radiographs are used to evaluate with jaw injuries?
root or alveolar bone fractures
periodontal ligament damage
What are 2 types of luxation?
the abnormal displacement of teeth
the abnormal displacement of teeth into the bone
the abnormal displacement of teeth out of the bone
What type of radiograph should be taken on luxated teeth?
teeth that have been luxated should be examined for what 3 things?
root and adjacent alveolar bone fractures
damage to the periodontal ligament
The complete displacement of a tooth from the alveolar bone
What do most avulsions result from?
assault or accidental fall
What are radiographs helpful to evaluate with avulsion?
region for splintered bone
Name 2 types of radiographic changes caused by resorption
a process that is seen with the normal shedding of primary teeth
a regressive alteration of tooth structure that is observed when a tooth is subjected to abnormal stimuli
What are 2 ways that resorption of teeth can be described by depending on the location of the process?
resorption that is seen along the periphery of root surfaces
What 7 things is external resorption often associated with?
abnormal mechanical forces
tumors or cysts
What area of the tooth does external resorption often affect?
the apices (appears blunted)
in external resorption the root length appears______________than normal
true or false. In external resorption, the lamina dura and bone appear normal
are there any signs or symptoms associated with external resorption?
can external resorption be detected clinically?
are teeth with external resorption mobile?
is there any effective treatment for external resorption?
Resorption that occurs within the crown or root and involves the pulp chamber, canals, and surrounding dentin
What are 3 precipitating factors believed to stimulate internal resorption?
What does internal resorption appear like on a radiograph?
round-to-ovoid radiolucency seen in midcrown to midroot
true or false. internal resorption is usually asymptomatic?
Can a root canal help a tooth with internal resorption?
if it is not weakened
When is extraction recommended for a tooth with internal resorption?
if the tooth is weakened
a diffuse calcification of the pulp chamber and pulp canals of teeth that results in a pulp cavity of decreased size (the bodies own root canal)
true or false. Pulpal sclerosis is associated with aging, has no clinical features, and is not clinically significant unless a root canal is indicated.
all statements are true
On a dental radiograph, a tooth with this condition appears not to have a pulp chamber or pulp canals, is nonvital and does not require treatment
_______________________________can act as irritants to pulp and stimulate secondary dentin
What are 6 conditions that can act as irritants to pulp and cause pulpal obliteration
abnormal mechanical forces
calcifications that are found in the pulp chamber or pulp canals of teeth, and the cause is unknown
How do pulp stones appear on a radiograph?
round, ovoid, or cylindrical radiopacities
true or false. Pulp stones vary in size, shape, and number and there is no treatment required
both statements are true
a lesion that is located around the apex (tip of the root) of a tooth and may appear either radiolucent or radiopaque
What are 3 periapical radiolucencies?
Can you diagnos periapical radiolucencies with radiographs alone? Why?
no, because they all look the same, so you must diagnos based on clinical findings
Why should we refer to granulomas, cysts, and abscesses as periapical radiolucencies?
because it is impossible to distinguish between them based on their radiographic appearance
a localized mass of chronically inflamed granulation tissue at the apex of a nonvital tooth, it results from pulpal death and necrosis
true or false. A periapical granuloma may give rise cyst or abscess
true or false. periapical granulomas may be asymptomatic but have a pervious history of sensitivity to hot and cold
What 2 treatments might be used for periapical granuloma?
extraction with curettage of apical region
How are periapical granulomas initially seen on a radiograph?
as a widened perio ligament space at apex
true or false. with time, the periapical granuloma widens to a round or ovoid radiolucency
is the lamina dura visible between the apex and lesion on a tooth with periapical granuloma?
a lesion that develops over a prolonged period of time; from cystic degeneration that takes place within a granuloma; it results from pulpal death and necrosis
What are the most common of all tooth-related cysts and comprise of 50-70% of all cysts in the oral cavity?
true or false. Periapical cysts are typically asypmtomatic
How are periapical cysts usually treated?
extraction as well as curettage of the apical region
How do periapical cysts appear on a radiograph?
round or ovoid radiolucency
a localized collection of pus in the periapical region of a tooth that results from pulpal death
what are 2 types of periapical abscesses?
features of a pus-producing process and inflammation, it may result from an acute inflammation of the pulp area or an area of chronic infection such as a periapical granuloma; it is painful, the pain may be intense and is sensative to pressure, percussion and heat
acute periapical abscess
features of a long-standing, low-grade, pus-producing process that may develop from an acute abscess or an acute abscess or a periapical granuloma; it is usually asymptomatic because the pus drains through the bone or periodontal ligament space
chronic periapical abscess
How does a chronic periapical abscess look clinically?
a gumboil seen in the apical region of the tooth at the site of drainage
How do you treat periapical abscess?
in which type of periapical abscess is might radiographic change evident? But early radiographic changes include an increased widening of the periodontal ligament space
acute periapical abscess
How does a chronic periapical abscess appear on a radiograph?
round or ovoid apical radiolucency with poorly defined margins, and lamina dura cannot be seen between the root apex and the radiolucent region
Results from bacterial infections within the walls of periodontal tissues, may result from a preexisting periodontal condition, and deep scaling and debridement is recommended for this condition
What is the most common symptom of a periodontal abscess?
What are 3 types of periapical radiopacities?
Can periapical radiopacities be diagnosed based on their radiographic appearance?
yes, as well as clinical information and patient history
a well-defined radiopacity that is seen below the apex of a nonvital tooth with a history of long-standing pulpitis, the opacity represents a proliferation of periapical bone that is a result of a low-grade inflammation or mild irritation and occurs in response to pulpal necrosis