1. ____ comes from the latin word cariousus which means ______
    • caries
    • rottenness
  2. what is defined as the localized destruction of teeth by microorganisms
    dental caries
  3. dental caries can effect which parts of the tooth?
    • enamel
    • dentin
    • cementum
  4. what is defined as a hole that is a result from the caries process?
    cavity (cavitation)
  5. dental examination for caries cannot be completed without _______
  6. radiographs are used to examine _____ and ______ of caries
    extent and severity
  7. what two instruments are used in the clinical examination and what are they used for?
    • mirror- reflect light, indirect vision and retract tongue
    • explorer-tactile to detected changes in consistency in pits, grooves and fissures of teeth
  8. what is used to reflect light, indirect vision and retraction of tongue?
  9. when using the explorer for tactile detection of caries what happens?
    catches or tug-backs
  10. during the clinical examination visible color changes are sometimes seen what do they look like?
    • pit stain
    • chalky white
    • opacities (demineralization)
    • interproximal discoloration
  11. ______ and _______ of hard tooth structures results in the loss of tooth density
    demineralization and destruction
  12. demineraliztion and destruction of hard tooth structures results in what?
    loss of tooth density
  13. decreased density in the tooth allows more of what to penetrate and what will it appear like on a film
    • more x-ray penetration
    • radiolucent
  14. what is the recommended radiograph for caries detection?
  15. what are four tips for interpretation of caries?
    • correctly mounted films
    • correctly viewed films (light box)
    • magnifying glass
    • view films with patient
  16. where would reflection of light with the mirror be helpful in the clinical examination for caries?
    anterior teeth (transillumination)
  17. what are three factors influencing caries interpretation?
    • diagnostic quality
    • technical errors
    • exposure errors
  18. what are some technical errors that can influence interpretation of caries?
    • horizontal angulation- overlapp
    • vertical angulation -distortion
  19. what type of caries is defined as between two teeth?
    interproximal caries
  20. where is caries usually seen for interproximal caries?
    usually seen at or just below the contact point (this is where stuff collects)
  21. what shape does caries appear when in the enamel?
  22. caries spreads ______ and continues through the dentin
  23. how is caries classified?
    according to depth and penetration
  24. what class of caries extends less than halfway through the enamel?`
    class I-incipient interproximal caries
  25. what would you do to treat a incipient interproximal caries class I?
    watch-fluoride and floss
  26. which class of caries extends more than halfway through the enamel but does not involve the DEJ?
    moderate interproximal caries class II
  27. what class of caries extends to or through the DEJ and into the dentin but does not extend more than half the distance to the pulp?
    advanced interproximal caries class III
  28. what class of caries extends through enamel, dentin and more than half the distance to the pulp
    severe interproximal caries class IV
  29. what class of caries may also appear clinically as a cavitation?
    severe interproximal caries class IV
  30. what portion of the tooth does occlusal caries involve?
    chewing surfaces of the teeth
  31. what examination method is used for occlusal caries?
    clinical examination
  32. why is occlusal caries difficult to see on a radiograh?
    because of the dense buccal and lingual enamel cusps
  33. when is occlusal caries seen radiographically?
    when it involves the DEJ
  34. what is incipient occlusal caries?
    • just into the enamel
    • cannot be seen on a radiograph
    • detected wit explorer
  35. how is incipient occlusal caries detected?
    with the explorer
  36. what type of caries extends into the dentin and appears as a thin radiolucent line located under the enamel?
    moderate occlusal caries
  37. with moderate occlusal caries _____ to ____ _____ is seen in the enamel
    little to no change
  38. what type of caries extends into the dentin and appears as a large radiolucency and is apparent clinically?
    severe occlusal caries
  39. _____involves the cheek side of the tooth
  40. _____involves the tongue side of the tooth
  41. t/f Buccal and lingual are difficult to detect radiographically
  42. why are buccal and lingual caries difficult to detect radiographically?
    because of superimposed densities
  43. how are buccal and lingual caries examined?
    clinically with an explorer
  44. what type of caries doesn't involve the enamel?
    root caries
  45. what parts of the tooth does root caries affect?
    cementum and dentin located just below the cervical region of the tooth
  46. what precedes root caries?
    bone loss and gingival recession
  47. where does recurrent caries occur?
    adjacent to preexisting restoration
  48. what is the cause of recurrent caries?
    • inadequate cavity preparation
    • defective margins
    • incomplete removal of caries before placement of restoration
  49. what kind of caries grows or spreads unchecked?
    rampant caries
  50. rampant caries is _____ or ______ caries that affects ______ teeth
    • advanced or severe
    • numerous
  51. when is rampant caries seen in children?
    when they have poor dietary habits
  52. when is rampant caries seen in adults?
    decreased salivary flow
Card Set
interpretation of dental caries