____ comes from the latin word cariousus which means ______
what is defined as the localized destruction of teeth by microorganisms
dental caries can effect which parts of the tooth?
what is defined as a hole that is a result from the caries process?
dental examination for caries cannot be completed without _______
radiographs are used to examine _____ and ______ of caries
extent and severity
what two instruments are used in the clinical examination and what are they used for?
mirror- reflect light, indirect vision and retract tongue
explorer-tactile to detected changes in consistency in pits, grooves and fissures of teeth
what is used to reflect light, indirect vision and retraction of tongue?
when using the explorer for tactile detection of caries what happens?
catches or tug-backs
during the clinical examination visible color changes are sometimes seen what do they look like?
______ and _______ of hard tooth structures results in the loss of tooth density
demineralization and destruction
demineraliztion and destruction of hard tooth structures results in what?
loss of tooth density
decreased density in the tooth allows more of what to penetrate and what will it appear like on a film
more x-ray penetration
what is the recommended radiograph for caries detection?
what are four tips for interpretation of caries?
correctly mounted films
correctly viewed films (light box)
view films with patient
where would reflection of light with the mirror be helpful in the clinical examination for caries?
anterior teeth (transillumination)
what are three factors influencing caries interpretation?
what are some technical errors that can influence interpretation of caries?
horizontal angulation- overlapp
vertical angulation -distortion
what type of caries is defined as between two teeth?
where is caries usually seen for interproximal caries?
usually seen at or just below the contact point (this is where stuff collects)
what shape does caries appear when in the enamel?
caries spreads ______ and continues through the dentin
how is caries classified?
according to depth and penetration
what class of caries extends less than halfway through the enamel?`
class I-incipient interproximal caries
what would you do to treat a incipient interproximal caries class I?
watch-fluoride and floss
which class of caries extends more than halfway through the enamel but does not involve the DEJ?
moderate interproximal caries class II
what class of caries extends to or through the DEJ and into the dentin but does not extend more than half the distance to the pulp?
advanced interproximal caries class III
what class of caries extends through enamel, dentin and more than half the distance to the pulp
severe interproximal caries class IV
what class of caries may also appear clinically as a cavitation?
severe interproximal caries class IV
what portion of the tooth does occlusal caries involve?
chewing surfaces of the teeth
what examination method is used for occlusal caries?
why is occlusal caries difficult to see on a radiograh?
because of the dense buccal and lingual enamel cusps
when is occlusal caries seen radiographically?
when it involves the DEJ
what is incipient occlusal caries?
just into the enamel
cannot be seen on a radiograph
detected wit explorer
how is incipient occlusal caries detected?
with the explorer
what type of caries extends into the dentin and appears as a thin radiolucent line located under the enamel?
moderate occlusal caries
with moderate occlusal caries _____ to ____ _____ is seen in the enamel
little to no change
what type of caries extends into the dentin and appears as a large radiolucency and is apparent clinically?
severe occlusal caries
_____involves the cheek side of the tooth
_____involves the tongue side of the tooth
t/f Buccal and lingual are difficult to detect radiographically
why are buccal and lingual caries difficult to detect radiographically?
because of superimposed densities
how are buccal and lingual caries examined?
clinically with an explorer
what type of caries doesn't involve the enamel?
what parts of the tooth does root caries affect?
cementum and dentin located just below the cervical region of the tooth
what precedes root caries?
bone loss and gingival recession
where does recurrent caries occur?
adjacent to preexisting restoration
what is the cause of recurrent caries?
inadequate cavity preparation
incomplete removal of caries before placement of restoration
what kind of caries grows or spreads unchecked?
rampant caries is _____ or ______ caries that affects ______ teeth
advanced or severe
when is rampant caries seen in children?
when they have poor dietary habits
when is rampant caries seen in adults?
decreased salivary flow
interpretation of dental caries