1. Allusion:
    • a reference to an historical event, text, person etc.
    • outside the text
  2. Analogy:
    a means of argument through the use of comparison
  3. Arguments:
    • Forensic (about the past),
    • Deliberative (about the future),
    • Epideictic/Ceremonial (about the present)
  4. Audience:
    the specific, identifiable ‘reader’ an author directs his/her argument toward
  5. Authoritative testimony:
    • expert testimony other than the author’s used to validate and support his/her claims
  6. Assumptions:
    unexamined beliefs
  7. Definitions:
    by synonym; by example (or ostensive); stipulative definitions
  8. Ethos:
    • ethical appeal or the author’s credibility: established by
    • 1). Demonstrating knowledge of the subject;
    • 2). Establishing common ground with the audience and
    • 3). Considering opposing points of view; demonstrating fairness
  9. Inference;
    a conclusion about the unknown based on the known
  10. Logos:
    logical appeal
  11. Pathos:
    emotional appeal; arguments from the heart
  12. Rhetorical Situation:
    the dynamic driven by the context in which an argument takes place, ie., the relationship between the author (and his or her purpose), subject, and audience
  13. Stasis Theory:
    • a means of investigating/analyzing a particular argument employing four basic questions
    • 1.Did something happen (arguments of fact)?
    • 2.What is the nature of the thing (arguments of definition)?
    • 3.What is the quality of the thing (arguments of evaluation)?
    • 4. What actions should be taken (proposal arguments)?
  14. Syllogism:
    • a form of reasoning with a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion that follows exclusively from the parameters of the two premises: it must be both valid (in its structure) and true (in the content of its premises)
    • EX: All humans are mortal
    • Socrates is a human
    • Socrates is mortal.
  15. Purpose:
    • author’s rhetorical intention; what he or she is attempting to accomplish
    • Cicero’s three major purposes: to delight, to teach, to move
  16. Inductive reasoning:
    • drawing general conclusions from specific observations (only probably
    • true)
  17. Deductive reasoning:
    • syllogistic reasoning that draws a specific
    • conclusion from stated premises (see syllogism)
  18. Premise
    stated opinion
  19. Thesis
    the main point of an essay
  20. Subject:
    topic of an essay
  21. Persona:
    the author’s self representation in an essay
Card Set
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