PSY important

  1. Based on the idea that all learning and behavior is the result of
    Spencer-Bain Principle
  2. The concept of association is the foundation of all learning. We learn by forming associations between ideas.
    Herbert Spencer, Evolutionary Associationism
  3. Population grows at exponential rate. Environment at linear. Influenced Darwin
    Thomas Malthus, Principle of Overgrowth
  4. A social darwinist, he believed that intelligence must be inherited.

    Set up first anthrometric laboratory to study individual's features and appearance as it related to intelligence.
    Sir Francis Galton, Psychometric
  5. The teological idea that it is possible to create a race of superior humans over a sufficient span of generations involving controlled, selective breeding (such as used by Nazi's)
  6. Developed factor analysis to break down the intercorrelations between items on an intelligence test, allowing statiticians to break down the intercorrelations among the items and determine how many factors are being measured in a given test
    Charles Spearman, Intelligence Testing
  7. Spearman found two factors in IQ tests: this represents a person's overall intelligence, tending to be stable over the lifetime, hereditary factors
    General Factor, g (nature)
  8. Spearman found two factors in IQ tests: this Corresponds to specific abilities that can be improved with training, showing not all intelligence is genetically determined. Associated with learning and experience
    Ability Factor, s, Doman-Specific (nurture)
  9. a discipline that applies the stimulus-response (S-R) chain to not only animals but humans as well. Allows for direct
    comparison between humans and animals with regards to the function of the mind
    Comparative Psychology
  10. Argumented against S-R in comparative psychology:
    Anectodal/Observation methods:
    animal psychologist, observed the behavior of animals and noted that sometimes they acted with intentions not unlike humans
    George Romanes, Comparative psychology
  11. Whenever an animals seems to act with intent, it’s okay to explain it by assigning a higher cognitive ability (say, human-like thinking) otherwise all animal behavior is by default a simple S-R chain

    You can say the animal acted with intent
    Morgan's Cannon
  12. The philosophy that true ideas are ideas that work, and that have some practical value. Its a way of judging the usefullness of an idea. For James, free will was more practical than determinism. Similar to Ockams Razor
  13. What are the 5 Facts of Consciousness (William James)
    • 1.Consciousness is personal
    • This is a Rejection of structuralism—everybody witnesses the
    • same simple stimulus and there is no personal interpretation
    • 2. Consciousness is always changing
    • 3. Consciousness is also continuous
    • Stream of Consciousness: you can never have the same experience twice (Heraclitus)
    • 4. Consciousness is Functional
    • 5. Consciousness is Selective
  14. This is an S-O-R approach, believes behavior is not reflexive and we use the rational mind
  15. (Thorndike) Any action followed by a satisfying (functional) consequence is repeated; actions followed by unsatisfying consequences are not repeated
    Law of Effect
  16. (Thorndike) The more often the association is made between a response and its consequences, the stronger the association becomes
    Law of Use
  17. (Thorndike) The longer the association goes unused, the weaker the association becomes
    Law of disuse
  18. Concluded from his experiments (Cat in Box) that a behavioral
    response that satisfied a motivation (getting out so they could eat) resulted in an association being form
    Thorndike, Functionalism
  19. 1st major US psychologist
    1st textbook: Principles of psychology
    William James
  20. Created the first psychology lab in the US
    1st president of the APA, key figure in its founding
    1st to publish a psychology journal in English.
    1st phd?
    Granville Stanley Hall "The Great Organizer"
  21. 1st phd with Wundt
    Lab at Penn , oldest operating
  22. 1st African American with PhD in psychology
    Psych program at Howard
    Francis Summer
  23. 1st Woman with PhD in psychology
    Margaret Floy Washburn
  24. A reflex which is modified by experience
    Conditioned reflex, Ivan Pavlov
  25. A reflex governed by the mind
    Physical Reflex Pavlov
  26. The pairing of a conditioned stimulus to an unconditioned stimulus, evoking a conditioned response.

    -Neutral (unconditioned) stimuli--does not ordinarily elicit a response.
    -paired with response-evoking stimuli (unconditioned stimulus)
    -Unconditioned stimuli is no longer neutral--elicits response on its own.
    Classical Conditioning, example Pavlov and salivating dog
  27. Influenced by positivism: publicly observable events are scientific.
    The goal for psychology for him was to predict and control behavior.
    He succeded in demonstrating that there was no distinction b/w humans and animals in terms of behavior. (fear generalized with other other similar objects like a dog, called stimulus generalization)
    John Watson, Behaviorism
  28. John Watson and Little Albert Study (proved mind was strictly S-R).
    • Loud sound: UCS
    • Fear: UCR
    • White rat: CS
    • Fear: CR
  29. They felt that some psychological constructs (such as learning or intelligence) could be scientific if they could be operationalized
  30. He believed learning occurs through association
  31. He rejecting innate knowledge and freewill and emphasizing the importance of learning.
    John Watson
  32. Argued that learning could occur in one trial despite lack of
    performance, goes against Aristotle’s Laws of Frequency and Throndike’s Law of Exercise
    Edwin Guthrie- Neobehaviorist
  33. He wanted to demonstrate that learning is more than just responses to stimuli, so he set up an experiment with rats and mazes.
    Edward Tolman, Positivist, Neobehaviorist
  34. They felt that a theory was only scientific if it could be empirically verified (demonstrated vs. experiment)
    However, allows for theorizing about the data so long as the theoretical construct could be verified experimentally
    Logical Positivism
  35. Scientific Method applied to Psychology
  36. What is the difference between positivism and logical positivism?
    • Positivism is the view that only observable data count in science. Theorizing is not allowed because it involves making statements beyond the data.
    • Logical positivism allows theorizing based on observable data, as long as the theories can be verified through scientific research.
  37. Learning and performance are the same thing.
    Strict S-R approach .
    Concerned only with publicly observable events and learning occurs through reinforcement.

    Postivism: Scientific Method
  38. Learning is a construct & Performance is an operational definition: something we used to measure amount learned
    Allows for S-"O"-R approach
    Learning occurs through observation
    Logical positivism
  39. O
    Kant and Helmholtz believed in top-down structuring, in otherwords, completely subjective experience at the “O” level, based on either innate rational knowledge (categories) or innate
  40. S-O-R
    introduced the role of the environment in behavior. Also they were the first to recognize responses to stimuli in the S-O-R chain
  41. S-R
    felt that all conscious behavior could be reduced to simple S-R chains; all behavior was a result of the stimuli that induced it
  42. He thought that all behavior could be broken down to the level of a tropism, which is behavior directed towards light

    Essentially argued that every behavior is an S-R chain.

    Mind is not required for animal behavior
  43. He disagreed with Loeb. His argument was that behavior is way too complex and required the mind .He studied simple organisms (protozoa)

    The mind is required in most cases . Some mindless reflexes exist, but most behavior is intentional
  44. He removed the cerebrum of cats and then tickled their feet What he noticed is that even without the cerebrum, the reflexes remained intact
    Don’t need a mind for responses--S-R
  45. He said that the mind is not really necessary for animal behavior, although it may be required to explain some complex behavior.
    Morgan, Behaviorist
  46. The study of information processing systems, and in particular the application of concepts and theories from computer science and information theory to the mind/psychology.
  47. Who :Science proceeds with a dominant paradigm that governs the kinds of experiments that are conducted and the kinds of descriptions that are allowed. Eventually, if the paradigm fails to explain the data that is generated, it will be rejected and replaced by an entirely new set of ideas and descriptions.
  48. Idea that the proper way to understand the human mind is to understand how it is inherently connected to the structure and organization of the brain, and further, how it is shaped by the environment via perception.
    Embodied cognition
  49. Treats the mind as an abstract series of computations, which are not tied to any particular manifestation (brain or computer) nor environment.
    information processing approach
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PSY important
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