1. Effortful Processing
    Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. Example: Studying for a test: more attention, more effort, longer lasting.
  2. Automatic Processing
    Unconscious encoding of incidental information and of well-learned info. Example: No longer need directions after walking to psych class for the first time.
  3. Implicit Memory
    Retention without conscious recollection. Cerebellum, associated with learning how to ride a bike.
  4. Explicit Memory
    The memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”. Hippocampus, memory of events (Independence Day)
  5. Encoding
    Processing information into the memory system. Example: Extracting meaning/Encode and retain info into storage.
  6. Storage
    Retention of encoded information over time.
  7. Retrieval
    Process of getting information out of memory storage.
  8. Relearning
    Memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a 2nd time.
  9. Retroactive Interference
    Disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of old info.
  10. Proactive Interference
    Disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of new info.
  11. Long-term Memory
    Permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Knowledge, skills, and intelligence. (Limitless)
  12. Short-term Memory
    Activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten. Example: Magic number 7: 7 items, plus or minus 2 (limited in capacity). 5-9 things; limited in our capacity and duration
  13. Flashbulb Memories
    Clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
  14. Algorithm
    Methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Usually speedier; Use of heuristics. Example: Aisle by aisle to get something, slower but sure.
  15. Heuristics
    Simple thinking strategy; allows us to make judgments and solve problems speedier, but more error prone than algorithms. Example: Straight to an aisle to get an item. Sometimes unaware of use.
  16. Functional Fixedness
    Tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; Impedient to problem solving.
  17. Semantics
    Rules where we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; Study of meaning.
  18. Morpheme
    In language, the smallest unit that carries meaning. May be a word or a part of a word.
  19. Syntax
    Rules for combining words into gramatically sensible sentences in a given language.
  20. Grammar
    In language, a system of rules that enalbes us to communicate with and understand others.
  21. Aptitude Tests
    Test designed to predict a person's future performance; capacity to learn
  22. Achievement Tests
    Tests desinged to assess what a person has learned.
  23. Validity
    A test that measures or predicts what it is supposed to. Wants to know that the test measures what is supposed to be measured.
  24. Reliability
    A test yields consistent results; assess by consistency of scores on 2 halves of the test, or on retesting. Concerned with consistency.
  25. Bell Curve (Normal Curve)
    Symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near mean/average.
  26. Personality
    Individual's character pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
  27. Psychoanalytic
    Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; believed patient's free association release previous repressed feelings, so they gain self-insight.
  28. Trait
    Character pattern of behavior; or a disposition to feel and act as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports. (How we breakdown personality)
  29. Humanistic
    Historically significant perspective that emphasizes growth potential of healthy people and individuals' potential for personal growth.
  30. Social-cognitive
    Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between peoples' traits and social context.
  31. Id
    Reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drivers. "Pleasure Principle," immediately demands gratification.
  32. Ego
    Large conscious "executive" part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality; "Reality Principle" by satisfying id's desires through pleasure and pain.
  33. Superego
    Part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment and future aspirations.
  34. Psychosexual Stages
    Childhood stages of development where id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
  35. Neo-Freudians
    Accepted Freud's basic ideas: id, ego, superego. Importance of unconscious. Personality in childhood. Anxiety and defense mechanisms. (Need to be aware of our conscious mind and experiences that impact you, not just unconscious). Didn't believe that everyone was wrapped up in agression and sex as he said other reasons and motivations for people.
  36. Defense Mechanisms
    Psychoanalytic theory; ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distoring reality. Example: boy is scared to ride roller coaster and holds mom's hand so she's not scared. (Projection: my feelings are now yours). Displacement: to take emotions out on someone else.
  37. Maslow
    Studied self-actualization processes of productive and healthy people.
  38. Jung
    Unconscious exerts are a powerful influence; shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history; shared cultural concepts: mother. (humanistic psychologist)
  39. Bandura
    "Reciprocal Determinism." Learn to anticipate a behavior's consequences in situations we are observing. (We look and we learn.)
  40. Horney
    Sought to balance bias she detected in masculine view of psychology
  41. Reciprocal Determinism
    Interacting influences of behavior internal and cognition and evironment (Bandura).
  42. Fixation
    Lingering focus in which conflicts were unresolved; inability to see problem from new perspective by different mental set. If you get stuck in an immature psychosexual stage.
  43. Gardener
    We don't have intelligence; we have "multiple intelligences" classified by 8 independent intelligences. Range of skills beyond school smarts.
  44. Spearman
    We have one "general intelligence." Factor analysis = statistical. Procedure that identifies clusters of related items. Factor underlying all intelligence abilities.
  45. Wechsler
    (WAIS) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Widely used intelligence test (11 subtests). For school-age preschool kids. Standardized, reliable, and valid. Devised the bell curve for intelligence.
  46. Positive Psychology
    Focus on what conditions and processes lead us to optimal health and performance. Explanations: addresses cultural perspectives, individualism, and collectivism.
  47. Nancy Brinker
    Founder of "Susan G. Komen for the Cure." Former ambassador to Hungary. Sister to Susan G. Komen. Signed the book at the TCU Bookstore.
  48. Psychoanalytical Approach
    Unconscious mind, psychoanalytical stages, defense mechanisms.
  49. Learned Helplessness
    Unable to escape, avoid repeated adverse events. An animal or human learns helplessness.
  50. MMPI
    Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory. Widely used test of personal and social adjustment based on a complex scaling of answers to a true or false test.
  51. The Big Five Personality Factors
    Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness. (Trait Perspective)
  52. Average IQ
  53. Normal Curve
    Percentage of population that falls in the standard deviation.
  54. Insight
    Sudden realization of the solution.
  55. Functional Fixedness
    Hang up something on your wall, have a nail, searching for a hammer, can't find it. What is the problem, instead of using shoe or book?
  56. Storage
    Retention of encoded info over time in our memory.
  57. Id, ego, and superego (in conflict)
    Impacting the way they cope with that conflict (impacts biological impulses, desire for pleasure, and any wishes (desires) that we are unaware of.
  58. Aphasia
    It is the production of language, which is impaired, (such as speaking) while other aspects of language are mostly preserved.
  59. Broca's Area
    Named after the person who discovered this area of the brain responsible for language production.
  60. Is the id the executive part of your personality?
  61. The sudden and often novel realization of the solution to the problem is
  62. To find something in a grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every aisle
  63. From a car accident Jenny suffered damage to her cerebral cortex in Broca's area. Jenny is most likely to experience what?
  64. Who is associated with general intelligence?
  65. An example to measure how much students learned?
    Achievement test
  66. Does it measure what it is supposed to measure?
  67. What is concerned with consistency?
  68. Who focused on multiple intelligences?
  69. Who devised Bell Curve based on intelligence?
  70. Need to hang up an object but can't find a hammer? Will not use a shoe or something else. What is the problem?
    Functional Fixedness
  71. Positive Psychology
    Focuses on what conditions and processes lead us to optimal health and performance.
  72. Explanations of positive psychology address both cultural perspectives:
    Individualism and collectivism
Card Set
Psychology terms for Exam 3