Animals are ingestive _______, and they have a digestive system for breaking down molecules.
Animals are ingestive chemoheterotrophs, and they have a digestive system for breaking down molecules.
Fungi are absorptive _______.
Microbial eukaryotes such as _____, are singled celled, but they can also live in groups or ______. They do not have specialized _____.
Microbial eukaryotes such as Protists, are singled celled, but they can also live in groups or colonies. They do not have specialized tissues.
paraphyletic groups have no _____ ancestor species, since they have multiple ______.
paraphyletic groups have no common ancestor species, since they have multiple origins.
Loss of the ___ ___, allowed the outside to be _____. Creating a Plasma Membrane.
Loss of the cell wall, allowed the outside to be flexibe. Creating a Plasma Membrane.
____ ____ of certain organelles is where cells are engulfed into another cell.
The cell went through _____ to acquire the mitochondria and chloroplast.
Primary endosymbiosis, is where eukaryoties engulfed _____ and the cell wall of this bacteria dissolved, leaving a plasma membrane
Primary endosymbiosis, is where eukaryoties engulfed CYANOBACTERIA and the cell wall of this bacteria dissolved, leaving a plasma membrane
Secondary _____, is where the eukaryote engulfs a cell with a ______ already in it, usually a photosynthetic eukaryote.
Secondary symbiosis, is where the eukaryote engulfs a cell with a cyanobacteria already in it, usually a photosynthetic eukaryote.
Microbial Eukaryotes are mostly
photo autotroph/heterotroph. heterotrophs being both absorptive and ingestive
locomotion by cilia, flagella, or amoeboid motion.
Most Microbial eukaryotes have a _____ vacuole, and a food vacuole, where water can move into and out through a process called _____, to prevent bursting.
Most eukaryotes have a CONTRACTILE vacuole, and a food vacuole, where water can move into and out through a process called PHAGOCYTOSIS, to prevent bursting.
Microbial eukaryotes can undergo both ____ and ____ reproduction
Microbial eukaryotes can undergo both asexual and sexual reproduction
Microbial Eukaryotes undergo, ____ of ____, with a haplontic and ____ life cycle. Both cycles are ______.
Microbial Eukaryotes undergo, ALTERNATION of GENERATION, with a haplontic and DIPLONTIC life cycle. Both cycles are MULTICELLULAR.
Dino-flagellates have plates that are made up of _____, and they also have flagella. There are ___ grooves where flagella are hidden.
Dino-flagellates have plates that are made up of cellulose, and they also have flagella. There are two grooves where flagella are hidden.
Dino-flagellates are ____-celled and they have ____ photosynthetic pigments.
Dino-flagellates are SINGLED-celled and they have RED photosynthetic pigments.
Dino-flagellates can form mutualistic relationships to corals, where they provide a food and corals provide a home.
Chlorophytes, are algae that are ____. They have ____ in their cell walls.
Chlorophytes, are algae that are GREEN. They have CELLULOSE in their cell walls.
Chlorophytes are unicellular, singled celld, and some are even multicellular, as well as colonial.
Red algae, are ____, and colonial. They have a chlorophyll A, and ______. They can even appear green. This is where agar in our petri dishes come from and even food like Seawee on sushi is a red algae.
Red algae, are PHOTOAUTOTROPHS and colonial. They have a chlorophyll A and CHORATOIDS. They can even appear green. This is where agar in our petri dishes come from and even food like Seaweed on sushi is a red algae.
Brown Algae are very ____ algae, that contain chlorophyll A. They can reach up to sixty meters high, and make those dense forests in water called '____'. They are used in Foods, Textiles, and pharmaceuticals.
Brown Algae are very LARGE algae. They can reach up to sixty meters high, and make those dense forests in water called 'KELPS'. They are used in Foods, Textiles, and pharmaceuticals.
Diatoms are also ______. They have shells that are ____ like, and they are made up of cilia. When they divide the daughter gets ____ of the shell.
Diatoms are also PHOTOAUTOTROPHS. They have shells that are GLASS like, and they are made up of cilia. When they divide the daughter gets HALF of the shell.
New gametophytes come from ___
Seed plant gametophytes are nutritionally dependent on the sporophytes
A typical life cycle not found in fungal is the nutritionally ....
Fungi do not ____ their food, rather they secret enzymes outside of their body and then ____ them back inside.
Fungi do not ABSORB their food, rather they secret enzymes outside of their body and then ABSORB them back inside.
An animal that is not diploblastic nor triploblastic is a....
Diatoms make glass-like silica shells around their single cells
Cilliate have ___ nuclei
Green, red, and brown algae all use ______ in photosynthesis
Choanoflagellates, of all microbial eukaryotes, have the most recent common ancestry with....
Ciliates are _____. They live in freshwater and they have ____ vacuoles. They also have cilia that can turn into _____. They have a _____ nuclei and ____ nuclei. They undergo ____ ____ cell division, or ______, where they exchange their _____ nuclei.
Ciliates are CHEMOHETEROTROPHS. They live in freshwater and they have CONTRACTILE vacuoles. They also have cilia that can turn into TENTACLES. They have a MACRO nuclei and MICRO nuclei. They undergo BINARY FISSION cell division, or CONJUGATION, where they exchange their MACRO nuclei.
Amoeboids only use __ ___ cell division. There is not exchanging of ___. Some do not have a sex, and when they feed they use a _____ to trap food molecules. They are related to slime molds.
Amoeboids only use BINARY FISSION, cell division. There is not exchanging of DNA. Some do not have a sex, and when they feed they use a PSEUDOPHODIA to trap food molecules. They are related to slime molds.
What is a pseudophodia?
it is what amoeboids use to trap molecules
In an alternation of generations the spores are ___, the gametophyte is produced by mitosis and cytokinesis of a ____, and gametes are produced from gametophytes undergoing ___.
In an alternation of generations the spores are haploid, the gametophyte is produced by mitosis and cytokinesis of a spore, and gametes are produced from gametophytes undergoing mitosis.
In aerobic prokaryotes the molecules that help with oxidative phosphoralation is in the _____ ____.
ProteoBacteria are Gram...
negative, thus they have a red tint to them.
Analysis of nucleotide sequences is a powerful tool for studying
Conjugation can lead to ...
lateral gene transfer
Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs and also
Gram negative means that you have a periplasmic space, so a Proteobacteria has....
two plasma membranes
In ferns which is bigger a sporophyte or gametophyte
What plant contributes to fossil fuels and caused the ice age?
seedless vascular plants
which of the following bacteria groups has the highest proportion of pathogens?
Mitochondira was derived from _____ by endosymbiosis
Cyanobacteria and low G-C bacteria are the only ones to produce ___/
Seedless plants are _____ eukaryotes that are photoautotrophs, and their life cycle also undergoes an ____ of ___.
Seedless plants are MULTICELLULAR eukaryotes that are photoautotrophs, and their life cycle also undergoes an ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS.
means to dry out
Nonvascular plants are also called..
Bryophytes are all ____, and are both land and water creatures.
Nonvascular plants are paraphyletic group, and vascular plants are ...
Vascular plants have ___ tubes for ____, and support. They contain both seed and seedless plants, and all vascular plants are ___.
Vascular plants have hollow tubes for transport and support. They contain both seed and seedless plants, and all vascular plants are MONOPHYLETIC.
Vasular plants do not need water or moister for ...
about 300 million year ago there was an abundance of large vascular plants. They cause a lot of CO2 loss from the atmospher causing a dramatic temperature
decrease, and only the tiny vascular plants lived.
Nonvascular _____ plants are
small and are found in dense population
nonvascular seedless plants have no ____ tissue, and they only transfered through ____.
support tissue, and they only transferred through diffusion.
Nonvascular plants have thin cuticles, which are
not effective at preventing water loss
Nonvascular plants have no true....
roots, leaves, and stems
The reporduction of nonVascular plants are sexually and asexually.
Nonvascular plants asexually reproduces by...
the female and male sex organ in plants. This is where gametes are produced by mitosis and protected form drying out.
In nonVascular plants a single egg grows in the
archegonium, and this is where sperm have to travel to.
In nonVascular plants, the male gametes are made in the ...
In nonVascular plants, the sporangium is a
capsule were spores form. Spores have very thick walls preventing dessication
Embryo grows in the parent, in nonVascular plants
Nonvascular plant, In the Mosses life cycle fertilization occurs, producing a ____ sporophyte, which becomes a ____. After going through ___, the spores escape and germinate elsewhere. This is where the haploid _____ forms. They require water or moisture for their sperm in the _____ to fertilize a haploid egg in the ____.
In a Mosses life cycle, fertilization occurs, producing a DIPLOID sporophyte, which becomes a SPORANGIUM. After going through MEIOSIS, the spores escape and germinate elsewhere. This is where the haploid GAMETOPHYTE forms. They require water or moisture for their sperm in the ANTHERIDIUM to fertilize a haploid egg in the ARCHEGONIUM.
the ____ makes its own food and lives longer. The gametangia is were the sex organs are and the embryo grows into a ____. The ____ remains attached to the gametophyte.
the gametophyte makes its own food and lives longer. The gametangia is were the sex organs are and the embryo grows into a sporophyte. The sporophyte remains attached to the gametophyte.
In nonVascular plants,
What is heterospory?
having the sex organs in seperate areas, megaspore (archegonium) and the microspore (antheridium)
In nonvascular plants what is in the megaspore?
archegonium, the egg
In nonVascular plants what is in the microspore?
Homospory means that a plant has both sex organs in one gametophyte
Vascular plants have
true roots, leaves, and stems.
true tissue for transport and support.
What species are the most numerous vascular seedless plants?
transports dissolved oxygen minerals, from roots.
are hollow cells (without cytoplasm) where Lignin is embedded and this is where minerals can flow up.
Where is lignin in vascular seedless plants?
the tracheids...a hollow tube in a plant.
Where growth occurs, and has similar properties like tracheids.
Vascular Seedless plants also follow the life cycle of
Alternation of Generations
Vascular SEED plants,
are gymnosperms and angiosperms
...gymnosperms are non flowering
....angiosperms are flowering
Vascular seed plants
angiosperms consists of monocots and eudicots.
monocots are like GRASS
Eudicots are like flowers
Vascular SEED plants
angiosperms consists of monocots and eudicots.
Microspores contain microsporangia ( male gametophyte)
Woody secondary growth is when cells of zylem infuse with lignin to make wood. This occurs in some seed plants.
Vascular SEED plants
Gymnosperms are adapted to ___ climate, and usually have ___ like leaves that can hold water well.
Vascular SEED plantsGymnosperms are adapted to dry climate, and usually have needle like leaves that can hold water well.
Vascular SEED plant -- LIfe cycle of a conifer,
starts with a __ sporophyte, with heterspory of a ___(female) and ___(male). These two parts undergo meiosis, and the haploid ___ from the strobili releases a pollen grain that fertilizes and creates a zygote. the embyo developes and the cone releases seeds which grow to become ___.
Vascular SEED plants,LIfe cycle of a conifer starts with a diploid sporophyte, with heterspory of a cone(female) and strobilus(male). These two parts under meiosis, and the haploid pollen gran from the strobili releases a pollen grain that fertilizes and creates a zygote. the embyo developes and the cone releases seeds which grow to become sporophytes.
Vascular SEED plants,
In conifers, where are the micro and megasporangiums?
The microsporangium are inside of the strobili,
The megasporangium is outside of the cones
Cones have scales, and two immature seeds called
ovules...the megaspore only has one sucessful functional megaspore.
Flowers have petals stigma styple, ovary, ovule, anther, filament, sepal, receptacle, stamine, and carpel
do you know each one's function
stigma, were the opening of the ovary is, and where the pollen must land.
ovule is within the ovary, where the microspore needs to fertilize.
anther is where the microspore are
Filament is the stem part that the anter stands on
Sepal are the leaves covering the petals before blooming
Receptacle is what connects the flower to the stem
There is fertilization of the endosperm and the ovule. The endosperm will become the juicy tissue or food source for the embryo . This is called...
The flesh of the fruits is basically the ___ of the flower
Life cycle of an angiosperm...
A sporophyte with the sex organ of a ___, contains anthers(male) and an ___(female). These undergo meiosis and there is only one possible ___ megaspore. After double fertilization occures the diploid zygote and ___ endosperm becomes an embryo. This becomes the seedling which will germinate somewhere and become a ___.
A sporophyte with the sex organ of a flower, contains anthers and an ovary. These undergo meiosis and there is only one possible haploid megaspore. After double fertilization occures the diploid zygote and tripoid endosperm becomes an embryo. This becomes the seedling which will germinate somewhere and become a sporophyte.
Gametophyte in Plants evolution...
Gametophytes are usually ___ that makes food for itself and sporophyte. In Ferns a ___ ___ plant the sporophyte has become ___ and gametophyte is no longer needed after fertilization process. In seed plants most of plants have ___ deep within the plant where gametophyte is dependent on ___.
.Gametophytes are usually photoautotrophic that makes food for itself and sporophyte. In Ferns a vascular seedless palnt the sporophyte has become larger and gametophyte is no longer needed after fertilization process. In seed plants most of plants have gametophyte deep within the plant where gametophyte is dependent on sporophyte.
aquatic with flagella or terrestrial with no flagella
they are absorptive heterotrophs.
Are in a clade
They are also single celled and do not have gametes
Have gamete nuclei within the parent body, thus there are not
a network of threads in the fungus body.
the single threads withing a mycelium
there are no ____ tissue needed for networking, support, etc
Fruiting bodies are where spores are made and released. Fungi can have many shapes.
The cell wall of fungi are made of
chitin and they can or do not have septa (which are dividing walls) within hyphae
dividing walls, but they are impartial closings
Saprobic means that fungi feed on
the remains of other organisms. They can also be parasitic, and predatory where they can loop and decompose prey
can share mutualistic relationships such as lichens and mycorrhizae ... and also endophytic
Lichens, are heterotrop fungus and green algae or cyanobacteria can live on no soil, but create it. They are a type of pioneer species.
Mycorrhize, are were fungus and plants work together.
endophytic, is where fungus lives on the part of the plant that is above ground. This helps plants not catch diseases and pathogens
Life cycle of FUNGI,
differnt mating types ( - / + ) undergo _____ into ____ spores and to ____ sporangium. ____ occures where fusion of the cytoplasm occures. Before fertilization both mycelium creates a _____ mycelium ( n + n). Then after fertilizing _____ occurs where there is fusion of nuclei. with Karyogamy this is where the ____ fruiting body is formed. After going through _____ the haploid ____ are made and through mitosis the cycle starts again.
differnt mating types ( - / + ) undergo mitosis into haploid spores and to haploid sporangium. Plasmogamy occures where fusion of the cytoplasm occures. Before fertilization both mycelium creates a dikaryotic mycelium ( n + n). Then after fertilizing karyogamy occurs where ther eis fusion of nuclei. with Karyogamy this is where the diploid fruiting body is formed. After going through meiosis the haploid spores are made and through mitosis the cycle starts again.
Fungi do not have a multicellular Diploid life cycle, it is mostly a haploid life cycle.
Name Five major Groups of Fungi...
Chytrids...where there are aquati and spores have flagella to swim in water.
zygomycetes ....are terrestrial and are parasites. Such as black mold
Glomeromycetes.... are terrestrial and hare associaled with plants and they can grow on animal feces. About half of the fungi in soils are glomeromycetes
Ascomycetes... are sac like and are delicious. This is where yeast and truffle mushrooms comes from
basidiomycetes... basidia on ills where spores comme out of pores. Also can be called Club mushrooms.