1. What type of surface coats the superficial surface of the cerebrum?
    grey matter
  2. What are basal nuclei?
    isolated centers of grey matter and neuronal soma within the white matter of the cerebrum
  3. What part of the brain does the thatlamus belong to?
  4. What connects left and right thalamus together?
    interthalamic adhesion
  5. What is function of the thalamus?
    relay center, primarily for afferent signals en route to the cortex
  6. What makes up the corpus striatum?
    • cuadate nucleus
    • lentiform nucleus
  7. What type of matter makes up caudate nucleus?
    grey matter
  8. Where is the caudate nucleus located?
    • it is a C-shaped structure that starts anterior to the lentiform nucleus
    • stretches superiorly and posteriorly over the thalamus
    • descends and runs anteriorly, inferior to the lentiform nucleus
    • tail never touches thalamus
  9. What is the shape of the lentiform nucleus?
    oval or "lens" shaped...
  10. What are the two parts of the lentiform nucleus?
    • Putamen
    • Glubus palladius (palladium)
  11. What is the lateral part of the lentiform nucleus?
  12. What is the medial part of the lentiform nucleus?
    globus palladius
  13. What is the putamen adjacent to?
    inferior portion of the caudate nucleus head
  14. What is the putamen made of?
    grey neuronal soma and axons
  15. What does anterior part of putamen join with?
    caudate nucleus
  16. What separates the posterior parts of the caudate nucleus and the putamen?
    internal capsule
  17. Why are the lentiform nuclei and the caudate nuclei known as teh corpus striatum?
    strands that connect the two nuclei cause a striped appearance
  18. What makes up the globus palladius?
    • grey matter, but a lighter grey than putamen
    • has some myelinated fibers
  19. What divides globus palladius from putamen?
    a thin strip of white matter
  20. What makes up the claustrum?
    grey matter and neuronal cell bodies
  21. Where is the claustrum located?
    lateral to the lentiform nucleus
  22. What is the function of the claustrum?
  23. What separates the claustrum from the lentiform nucleus?
    the external capsule (made of white matter)
  24. What lies laterally to the claustrum?
    the extreme capsule
  25. What is superficial to the extreme capsule?
    insular cerebral cortex
  26. What travels between the extreme capsule and the insular cortex?
    white matter fibers
  27. What makes up te amygdala?
    • grey matter
    • it is a nucleus
  28. Where is the amygdala located?
    emerges from the anterior end of the tail of the caudate nucleus
  29. What is the amygdala related to functionally?
    • limbic system
    • visceral changes to emotions, pain, and fear respone
  30. What is the hippocampus an extension of?
    cerebral cortex of the medial temporal lobe
  31. What makes up the hippocampus?
    • neuronal soma
    • grey matter axons
  32. where does the hippocampus send its axons?
    to the fornix
  33. Where is the hippocampus located
    • deep temporal lobe
    • starts anteriorly and extends posteriorly
  34. What is the relation of the hippocampus and the fornix?
    the fornix takes information from the hippocampus to other parts of the brain, specifically to the mammillary bodies
  35. What is function of hippocampus?
    involved in transfroming short-term memories into long-term
  36. What system is the hippocampus part of?
    limbic system of brain
  37. Where do hippocampus axons connect to in the fornix?
    the crura (singular is crus)
  38. What attaches right and left fornixes?
    commissural attachments
  39. What do the fornix bodies run directly inferior to?
    the corpus callosum
  40. What part of the brain does the fornix belong to?
  41. What are the posterior descending parts of the fornix called?
  42. What kind of matter makes up the body and columns of the fornix?
    white matter
  43. Where do the anterior tracts of the fornix end?
    the septal nuclei of the frontal lobe
  44. Where do the posterior tracks of the fornix end?
    mammillary bodies of the diencephalon
  45. What are mammillary bodies involved in?
    processing memories
  46. What makes up the internal capsule?
    • white matter axons that enter the cerebrum from the thalamus
    • white matter axons leaving the cerebrum for the diencephalon, brainstem, and spinal cord
  47. Where is the anterior limb of the internal capsule located?
    it runs between the superior portions of the putamen and caudate nuclei
  48. Where is the posterior limb of the internal capsule located?
    runs between the putamen and the thalamus
  49. Where do the optic radiations exist?
    the most posterior portion of the posterior limb of the internal capsule
  50. Where do optic radiations come off?
    LGN of the thalamus
  51. What is the retrolentiform portion of the internal capsule?
    the most posterior portion of the internal capsule, posterior to the lentiform nucleus
  52. What must all white matter fibers travel through going to or from the brainstem from the cerebrum?
    the two cerebral peduncles of the midbrain
  53. What is the corona radiata?
    • collection of white matter fibers that project from the internal capsule to the cerebral cortex, or vice versa
    • basically an extension of the internal capsule
  54. What are association fibers in the cerebrum?
    • white matter fibers that connect different parts of the cerebrum within the same himispheres
    • two types: long and short
  55. What are short association fibers?
    white matter fibers that connect areas of cerebral cortex from different gyri within the same cerebral lobe
  56. What are long association fibers?
    white matter fibers that connect areas of the cerebral cortex from different lobes within the same cerebral hemisphere
  57. What are commissural fibers?
    • white matter fibers that connect portions of the cerebral cortex in one hemisphere with its partner in the other hemisphere
    • there are only four cerebral commissures: corpus callosum, anterior commissure, posterior commissure, and habenular commissure
  58. What is the largest cerebral commissure?
    corpus callosum
  59. What are the parts of the corpus callosum?
    • rostrum (most anterior)
    • genu (knee or bend)
    • trunk or body
    • spenium (most posterior)
  60. What direction, in relation to the corona radiata, do commissural fibers run?
    perpendicular, so they are not the same thing, but they do pass through it.
  61. What do the anterior commissural fibers connect?
    • olfactory tracts to each other
    • limbic system to both halves
  62. What do the posterior commissural fibers connect?
    decussate axons from the pretectal nuceli travelling ton the Edinger-Westphal nucelus
  63. Where is the posterior commissure located?
    • between the temporal lobe and the thalamus edges
    • superior to the posterior midbrain
  64. Where is the anterior commissure located?
    the edge between the frontal lobe and the thalamus
  65. Where is the Habenular commissure located?
    superior to the posterior commissure
  66. What does the habenular commissure connect?
    axons from the habenular nucleus to go to the contralateral thalamus
  67. What do projection fibers travel through?
    corona radiata and internal capsule
  68. What is the function of the corpus striatum?
    • coordination, grading, learning, planning, and regulating of fine motor activity
    • maybe some emotional movements
  69. What type of input does the corpus striatum receive?
    excitatory afferent
  70. From what other cerebral structures does the corpus striatum receive signals?
    • primary motor cortex (excitatory)
    • somatosensory cortex (excitatory)
    • thalamus (excitatory)
    • nigrosstriatal fibers from the substantia nigra of the brainstem (inhibitory)
    • all over the cerebral cortex
  71. What is is released into the corpus striatum from fibers?
  72. What is the most commonly used excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain?
  73. What type of signal is sent between the putamen and the globus palladius?
  74. Where does the efferent output of the corpus striatum go to?
    • substantia nigra
    • globus palladius
  75. What type of signal does the substantia nigra receive from the corpus striatum?
    • inhibitory
    • connection pathway called "striatonigral" fibers
  76. Where does the globus palladius send inhibtory fibers?
    • thalamus
    • subthalamus
    • midbrain
  77. With what kind of fibers does the thalamus connect to the cerebral cortex?
    • excitatory
    • this completes a loop...
  78. What chemical is used for inhibition?
  79. What are nigrostriatal fibers?
    • fibers traveling from the substantia nigra to the corpus striatum that release dopamine
    • this causes an inhibitory effect on the corpus striatum
  80. What are striatonigral fibers?
    • fibers that travel from the corpus striatum to the substantia nigra and release GABA
    • this causes an inhibitory effect on the substantia nigra
  81. What can interruptions of the corpus striatum system cause?
    movement problems
  82. What is basic function of the corpus striatum?
    filters information from the cortex, returns it to the cortex which then sends it to spinal cord or cranial nerves
  83. What causes Huntington's chorea?
    striatonigral axons degenerate, causing the substantia nigra to be oeveractive and inhibit the corpus striatum too much
  84. What type of disease is Huntington's chorea?
    hereditary, autosomal dominant
  85. What are symptoms of Huntington's chorea?
    • involuntary twitching (when staying still)
    • immobility
    • death
  86. How is St. Vitus' dance contracted?
    • it is a residual effect from Rheumatic fever that causes an autoimmune disease
    • overactive immune system attacks basal nuclei neurons
  87. What are symptoms of St. Vitus' Dance?
    • twitching
    • jerky movements
    • usually not too serious and can recover
  88. What cause Parkinson's Disease?
    • nigrostriatal neurons die
    • corpus striatum is no longer inhibted and is overactive
  89. What are symptoms of Parkinson's Disease?
    • jerky movements
    • hunched over due to flexor muscles being activated
    • difficulty in stopping or starting movement
    • tremors occur when they move
  90. How many nigrostriatal fibers must die before Parkinson's Disease symptoms occur?
  91. What are treatments for Parkinson's disease?
    • L-dopa (dopamine that crosses blood-brain barrier)
    • MAOI (monoaminoxidase inhibitors)
    • implant neurons that release dopamine
    • remove globus palladius (last resort)
  92. What are the parts of the Limbic System?
    • hippocampus
    • fornix
    • mammillary bodies
    • anterior thalamic nuclei
    • amygdalae
    • olfaction system
    • cingulated gyrus
    • parahippocampal gyrus
  93. What is function of the Papez circuit?
    • transforming short-term memory into long-term memory
    • controlls interaction between the autonomic nervous system, endocrine system, and emotions
  94. What are the components of the Papez circuit?
    • Cingulate cortex
    • Parahippocampal gyrus
    • Hippocampus
    • Mammillary bodies
    • Anterior nucleus of the thalamus
  95. What are the functions of the anterior portion of the Cingulate Cortex (gyrus)
    • motor decision making
    • sentence structure in speech
    • emotions
    • autonomic reaction to emotions
    • bladder control
  96. What are the functions of the posterior portion of the Cingulate Cortex (gyrus)?
    pain perception
  97. What does the posterior portion of the cingulate cortex (gyrus) merge with?
    • parahippocampal gyrus
    • this then becomes the hippocampus
  98. What is the combined function of the parahippocampal gyrus and the hippocampus?
    • memory transmission
    • little computation
  99. Where do axons travel to from the mammillary bodies?
    anterior nucleu of the thalamus
  100. Where does the anterior nucleus of the thalamus send axons?
    the anterior cingulate gyrus
  101. Where is fear mediated?
  102. What other structures are connected to the amygdala?
    • olfactory tracts
    • septal nuclei
    • diencephalon
    • midbrain
  103. What is different about the amygdala than other limbic system structures?
    it is not part of the papez circuit
  104. What is one theory of phobia creation?
    • early, fearful amygdaloid reactions to stimuli before the hippocampus was fully developed
    • basically, you feel fear for something but don't remember why you first felt it
  105. What causes Post-traumatic stress disorder? (neurologically speaking...)
    • strong inputs to te amygdala from cerebral cortex after intense sensation
    • can affect hippocampus and long-term memory
    • flashbacks are triggered by certain stimuli
  106. Can visual stimuli cause flashbacks?
    yes, because the visual cortex is connected to the amygdala
  107. What is the function of the magnocellular (neuroendocrine) basal nucleus of Meynert
    • nucleus of cholinergic fibers that release acetylcholine to all areas of the cerbral cotex when person is awake
    • makes brain more sensitive to excitation
    • this aids in learning
  108. What is the most common cause of dementia?
    Alzheimer's disease
  109. What is the cause of Alzeimer's disease?
    • loss of pyramidal neurons
    • Amyloid plaques
    • neurofibrillary tangels
    • loss of cholinergic neurons from basal nuclei of Meynert
  110. What is function of pyramidal neurons?
    take motor information from the precentral gyrus to the striated muscles
  111. Where are and what are neurofibrillary tangles typically located in Alzheimer's disease?
    • located in the hippocampus and amygdala
    • they are abnormal clumps of microtubules
  112. What is the progression of degeneration of Alzheimer's disease?
    • starts in medial temporal lobe and moves superiorly
    • then moves occipitotemporally
    • finaly, frontal lobe functions dwindle by 3 years of onset
    • personality degrades about 5-6 years before death
  113. What is the order of function loss in Alzheimer's disease?
    • forgetfulness, attention deficit
    • inability to read, write, or recognize family
    • vacant state
    • personality degradation
  114. What is interesting in the relationship between cell phones and Alzheimer's disease?
    cell phone usage correlates with lower amyloid plaques
  115. What are meninges?
    • membranes that surroind the CNS, support it, and protect it
    • Dura mater
    • Arachnoid mater
    • Pia mater
  116. What is the thickest meningeal layer?
    dura mater
  117. What are the layers of the dura mater?
    • outer endocranial layer
    • inner meningeal layer
  118. What is the outerendocranial layer of the dura mater attached to?
    bone (skull)
  119. What artery supplies most of the outer endocranial layer of the dura mater?
    middle meningeal branch of the maxillary artery
  120. When the inner meningeal layer of the dura mater splits from the outer endocranial layer, what does it form usually?
    dural sinuses
  121. What meningeal structure divides right and left cerebral hemispheres?
    falx cerebri of inner meningeal layer of dura mater
  122. Where is the location of the falx cerebri?
    • it runs in the midsaggital line of the cranium from frontal bone to occipital bone above the corpus callosum
    • ends on the tentorium cerebella
  123. What dural structure divides the cerebrum from the cerebellum?
    tentorium cerebelli
  124. What is the location of the tentorium cerebelli?
    • starts on occipital protuberance above the confluence of sinuses
    • runs parallel with the transverse sinus along the petreous temporal bone
    • ends on the posterior clinoid processes of sella turcica
    • pretty much a 300 degree structure with a big whole in the middle
  125. Where are the clinoid processes located?
    on the lateral sides of the posterior rim (dorsum sellae) of the sella turcica
  126. What structure of dura mater does the brain stem exit through?
    the tentorial notch of the tentorium cerebelli
  127. What makes swelling of the cerebrum or brain stem dangerous in relation to the tentorial notch?
    the tentorial notch is sharp and can cause damage to structures when there is extra pressure
  128. What is the dura mater structure that covers the sella turcica?
    diaphragma sellae
  129. What structure passes through the diaphragma turcica?
    the infundibulum that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
  130. What forms the diaphragma sellae?
    anterior junction of the tentorium cerebelli and the falx cerebri
  131. What dura mater layer is continuous with the periosteum (deepest layer) of the scalp?
  132. What dura mater layer is continous with the epineurium (out covering of nerves)?
    inner meningeal layer
  133. What is the arachnoid mater attached to?
    the inner meningeal layer of the dura
  134. Where does blood pool if it comes from injured dural meningeal arteries? What is this called?
    • pools between the dura and arachnoid maters
    • called a subdural hematoma
  135. What is the subdural space?
    • a space that only exists if conditions are right, such as a blow to the pterion
    • the actual formation of it is usually a bad thing
  136. How does CSF get into dural sinuses?
    arachnoid villi (also called granulations) penetrate the inner meningeal layer of the dura into the dural sinuses and CSF leeks through this penetration
  137. Besides dural sinuses, where is CSF located?
    subarachnoid space
  138. What is structure of the subarachnoid space?
    webby-looking processes that stretch between arachnoid mater and pia mater
  139. What is the function of the subarachnoid space?
    to act as a shock absorber through the stretchy processes of the arachnoid mater and the CSF contained in it
  140. What can be formed between pia mater and arachnoid mater due to the folding of the brain?
    cisterna; arachnoid mater does not follow sulci of cerebrum
  141. What are the names of large cisterna?
    • Cisterna cerebellomedullaris (between the cerebellum and medulla)
    • Cisterna interpeduncularis (between the cerebral peduncles)
    • Cisterna pontis (between the medulla and the pons)
    • Cistern of great cerebral vein
  142. What is the thinnest meningeal layer of the brain?
    pia mater
  143. What is the pia mater connected to?
    the CNS; it follows sulci and gyri of the brain and spinal cord intimately
  144. What do blood vessels travel through just before supplying the CNS?
    invaginations of the pia mater
  145. Where is CSF produces?
    ventricles of the brain
  146. How many cerebral ventricles are there? What are their names?
    • Left and right lateral ventricles
    • Third ventricle
    • Fourth ventricle
  147. What are the horns of the left and right lateral ventricles?
    • anterior
    • occipital
    • inferior (temporal)
  148. What structure drains lateral ventricles to third ventricle?
    interventricular foramena (right and left)
  149. Where is the third ventricle located?
    • between the right and left diencephalon
    • the interthalamic adhesion passes through center of it
  150. What drains the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle?
    the cerebral aquaduct
  151. Where is the fourth ventricle located?
    • pons and medulla of brainstem make up anterior border
    • cerebellum is posterior border
  152. What does CSF pass through to exit subarachnoid space?
    • right and left lateral apertures
    • median aperture
  153. What type of process makes CSF?
    • active, pressure independent
    • constantly occuring in the choroid plexi of all four ventricles
  154. What solely forms the blood brain barrier?
    zonula occludens of the endothelial cells of capillaries
  155. What type of molecules can diffuse through the blood brain barrier?
    • water
    • gasses
    • glucose
  156. Where are places in the CNS where the blood-brain barrier does not occur?
    • Pineal Gland
    • posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
    • wall ofthe optic recess
    • vascular area postrema
  157. What is the function of the pineal gland?
    • releases hormones into the bloodstream based upon blood chemistry
    • releases hormones into the third ventricle that diffuse to the optic recess area
  158. Where is the Vascular area Postrema located? What is its function?
    • in the medulla oblongata, on the floor of the fourth ventricle
    • vomiting
  159. What is the color of CSF?
    clear and colorless
  160. What problem causes CSF to not be clear and colorless?
    • meningitis
    • blood-barrier breaks down
    • proteins and macromolecules enter CSF causing cloudy appearance
  161. What are the functions of the CSF?
    • protection
    • supportive
    • hormone carrying
    • remove neuronal biproducts
  162. What forms the blood-CSF barrier?
    • zonula occludens between the ependymal cells of the choroid plexi capillaries that line the ventricles
    • water can be actively transported into CSF using ATP
  163. What is normal pressure of the CSF?
    60-150 mm H2O
  164. What causes idiopathic intracranial hypertension?
  165. What is pseudotumor cerebri and what are its symptoms?
    • increased cranial pressure
    • swollen optic disc
    • no tumor in imaging
  166. Who is at risk for pseudotumor cerebri?
    fat, fertile females
  167. What is the typical treatment for a pseudotumor cerebri?
    heavy duty diuretics
  168. What is the circulation (pathway) of the CSF?
    • ventricles
    • subarachnoid space
    • dural venous sinuses
    • venous blood supply
  169. What type of process is CSF drainage into the venous sinuses?
    • passive, pressure dependant
    • only happens of CSF pressure is greater than blood pressure
  170. Where are most arachnoid villi (granulations) located?
    superior sagittal sinus
  171. What type of nerve is CN VIII (Vestibulocochlear)?
    • purely afferent
    • hearing and balance
  172. What cranial openings does CN VIII (vestibulocochlear) go through?
    internal acoustic meatus
  173. What is the pathway of a hearing stimulus? (8 steps)
    • spiral organ of Corti
    • spiral ganglion (no synapses)
    • cochlear nerve
    • travels through internal acoustic meatus
    • travels in cranial fossa (joins vestibular nerve here)
    • enters brain at pontine-medullary junction
    • anterior or posterior cochlear nuclei
    • end on synapses going to thalamus
  174. What is the pathway for cochlear information to the auditory cortex of temporal lobe?
    • some go directly to thalamus
    • Others: inferior colliculus then thalamus
    • from thalamus to auditory cortex of temporal lobe
  175. What detects balance?
    • ampullae of the semi-circular canals
    • maculae of the utricle and saccule by hair cells
  176. What is the pathway of the balance stimuli?
    • hair cell neurons of the vestibule
    • vestibular ganglion (no synapses)
    • vestibular nerve
    • enters at internal acoustic meatus
    • enter brain at pontine-medullary junction
    • vestibular nuclei of pons and medulla (lateral, medial, superior, and infereior)
  177. Where does balance information travel to after the vestibular nuclei of the pons and medulla?
    • the cerebellum
    • spinal cord
    • medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) (CN III, IV, & VI)
    • thalamus
    • post-central gyrus
  178. What type of nerve is CN IX (glossopharyngeal)?
    efferent and afferent
  179. Where do efferent fibers of CN IX (glossopharyngeal) travel to?
    • parasympathetic to parotid gland
    • somatic to stylo-pharyngeus
  180. Where do afferent fibers of CN IX (glossopharyngeal) travel from?
    • somatosensory and taste from posterior 1/3 of tongue
    • sensory from middle ear cavity and pharynx
    • visceral sensory from carotid body and sinus
  181. What cranial openings does CN IX (glossopharyngeal) travel through?
    jugular foramen
  182. Where do somatic efferent axons come from for CN IX?
    soma of the nucleus ambiguous of medulla
  183. What innervates the stylopharyngeal muscle? what is its function?
    • CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
    • active in swallowing
  184. What is the pathway of the autonomic afferent axons of CN IX (glossopharyngeal)?
    • arise from inferior salivatory nucleus of medulla
    • join with glossopharyngeal nerve
    • exit jugular formen then branch off
    • travel through tympanic nerve to reenter skull
    • form lesser petrosal nerve
    • otic ganglion (synapses)
    • post-otic-ganglions innervate parotid gland
  185. After passing through CN IX (glossopharyngeal) and entering the medulla, what nucleus does taste infromation travel to?
    solitary tract nucleus
  186. After passing through CN IX (glossopharyngeal), where does somatic sensory information travel to?
    the three trigeminal nuclei of brainstem
  187. what are the three trigeminal nuclei of the brain stem?
    • principal sensory nucleus
    • mesenchephalic nucleus
    • spinal nucleus
  188. Where does middle ear cavity sensory info travel to via what cranial nerve?
    • to the trigeminal nuclei
    • via tympanic plexus, tympanic nerve, then CN IX (glossopharyngeal)
  189. Where do visceral sensations of the carotid sinus and carotid body travel to?
    • through CN IX (glossopharyngeal) to solitary tract nucleus of medulla
    • some continue on to dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve
  190. What are visceral sensations of the carotid sinus called?
  191. What are visceral sensations of the carotid body called?
  192. What type of nerve is CN X (vagus)?
    sensory and motor
  193. What cranial openings does CN X (vagus) travel through?
    jugular foramen
  194. Where do somatic motor axons of CN X (vagus) travel to?
    • pharynx
    • palate
    • larynx
    • upper esophagus
  195. Where do somatic motor axons of CN X (vagus) arise from?
    nucleus ambiguus of hte medulla
  196. Where do parasympathetic motor axons of CN X (vagus) arise from ?
    dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve in the infero-posterior medulla
  197. What do parasympathetic motor axons of CN X (vagus) innervate?
    • heart
    • bronchi
    • esophagus
    • liver
    • kidneys
    • pancreas
    • digestive tract
  198. Where do most organs of the digestive tract have their parasympathetic ganglia?
    the organ walls
  199. What opening does CN X (vagus) pass through to enter abdomen?
    esophageal opening
  200. What afferent sensory information does CN X (vagus) carry?
    • general and visceral sensation from all innervated structures
    • external ear (via auricular branch)
  201. What two ganglia of the vagus nerve occur just before the jugular foramen?
    • superior sensory ganglia
    • inferior sensory (nodose) ganglia
    • sensory neuronal somae are found here
  202. What nucleus do sensory axons traveling through CN X(vagus) project to?
    trigeminal nuclei
  203. Is there any taste sensory info that travels through CN X (vagus)?
    • very little from epiglottis taste buds
    • these project to the solitary tract nucleus
  204. What type of nerve is CN XI (accessory)?
    purely somatic efferent!
  205. What two divisions of CN XI (accessory) are there?
    • Cranial root
    • Spinal root
  206. What muscles does the cranial root of CN XI (accessory) innervate
    • muscles of pharynx
    • larynx
    • palate
  207. What muscles does the spinal root of CN XI (accessory) innervate?
    • sternocleidomastoid
    • trapezius
  208. What cranial openings does CN XI (accessory) travel through?
    • spinal root enters skull via foramen magnum
    • both spinal and cranial roots exit skull via jugular foramen
  209. What nucleus do cranial root axons of CN XI (accessory) arise from?
    nucleus ambiguus
  210. What do spinal root axons of CN XI (accessory) arise from?
    cervical spinal cord in form of rootlets
  211. What type of nerve is CN XII (hypoglossal)?
    purely motor (somatic) efferent
  212. What does CN XII (hypoglossal) innervate?
    • intrinsic muscles of the tongue
    • extrinsic musles of the tongue
  213. What cranial opening does CN XII (hypoglossal) pass through? (it's easy...)
    hypoglossal foramen
  214. Where do motor axons of CN XII (hypoglossal) arise from?
    • somae of hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla
    • exit from anterior medulla
  215. What additional nerve fibers pass through CN XII (hypoglossal) as it passes through neck?
    fibers from cervical plexus
  216. What are the grooves, or valleys, of the cerebral cortex?
  217. What are the peaks between sulci in cerebral cortex?
    gyrus (plural gyri)
  218. What divides the two hemispheres of the cerbral cortex?
    longitudinal cerebral fissure
  219. why is vision not affected if corpus callosum is cut?
    vision decussates in optic chiasm and never travels in the corpus callosum
  220. What divides the brain into its different lobes? (2 main sulci and 2 imaginary lines)
    • Central sulcus
    • Lateral sulcus/ Sylvian Fissure
    • temporal/ parietal division
    • temporal/ parietal/ occipital division
  221. What does the Central Sulcus divide?
    • frontal from parietal lobe
    • sits between precentral and postcentral gyri
  222. What does the Lateral Sulcus/ Sylvian Fissure divide?
    frontal lobe from temporal lobe
  223. What lobe lies medial to the temporal lobe and is hidden?
    insula lobe
  224. What is the landmark for the temporal/ parietal division?
    • the lateral sulcus/ Sylvian Fissure
    • draw a line from where this ends till the occipital lobe
    • everything beneath is temporal lobe
    • everything above it and behind central sulcus is parietal lobe
  225. What are landmarks for temporal/ parietal/ occipital division?
    vertical line going from pareitaloccipital sulcus (on superior posterior part of cerebrum) to preoccipital notch (located on inferior border of cerebrum)
  226. What is the cingulate sulcus?
    • it is a medial sulcus of the cerebrum only visible from a midsaggital view
    • it divides the frontal and parietal lobes from the Limbic lobe
  227. What is boundary of frontal lobe from the medial view?
    • an imaginary line from the edge of the central sulcus to the cingulated sulcus
    • everything behind line is parietal lobe
    • everything anterior is frontal lobe
  228. What dividing sulcus was relatively small on lateral view, but is large on medial view?
    parietaloccipital sulcus
  229. What sense is supposedly considered to be the most evocative?
    smell, because it feeds directly into limbic area
  230. What are the major gyri of the frontal lobe?
    • precentral gyrus
    • superior gyrus
    • middle gyrus
    • inferior gyrus
    • orbital gyri
    • cranial nerve 1/ olfactory bulb
  231. What are the major sulci of the frontal lobe?
    • superior frontal sulcus (divides superior and middle gyri)
    • inferior frontal sulcus (divides middle and inferior gyri)
  232. What are the four areas of the frontal lobe?
    • primary motor cortex
    • secondary motor cortex
    • premotor cortex
    • prefrontal cortex
  233. Where is the primary motor cortex located?
    precentral gyrus
  234. Where is the secondary motor cortex located?
    anterior to the precentral gyrus
  235. Where is the premotor cortex located?
    • anterior to secondary motor cortex
    • parts in the superior, middle, and inferior gyri
  236. Where are the frontal eye fields located?
    premotor cortex
  237. Where is the prefrontal cortex located?
    most anterior part of frontal lobe
  238. What is the function of the prefrontal cortex?
    inhibitory control of behavior
  239. What changes in the cerebrum can cause more aggressive behavior?
    • removal of prefrontal cortex
    • pituitary adenoma
  240. What are the functions of the parietal lobe?
    • detecting sensory information
    • integration of information through association areas
  241. What are the main areas of the parietal lobe?
    • postcentral gyrus
    • inferior parietal lobule
    • superior parietal lobule
  242. What are the divisions of the inferior parietal lobule?
    • supramarginal gyrus (lies on margin of lateral fissure)
    • angular gyrus (most posterior area)
  243. What additional subdivision does the superior parietal lobule have?
    • precuneus
    • located directly anterior to cuneus
    • separated by parietaloccipital sulcus
  244. What houses the primary visual cortex?
    calcarine sulcus of the occipital lobe
  245. What are the main areas of the occipital sulcus?
    • cuneus
    • calcarine sulcus
    • lingual gyrus
    • 2 occipitotemporal gyri (mostly in temporal lobe)
  246. What are the main gyri of the temporal lobe?
    • superior temporal
    • middle temporal
    • inferior temporal
    • lateral occipitotemporal
    • medial occipitotemporal
    • lingual
    • uncas
  247. What are the main sulci of the temporal lobe?
    • superior temporal
    • inferior temporal
    • occipitotemporal
  248. What causes death in an uncal herniation?
    uncus drops down into tentorial notch from a spinal tap
  249. What are the functions of the temporal lobe?
    • higher order visual processes
    • auditory and olfactory cortices located here
    • anterior tip has part of prefrontal cortex (behavior control)
  250. What gyrus makes up the limbic lobe? (only one)
    cingulate gyrus
  251. What is function of the limbic lobe?
    • emotions
    • memory function
    • autonomic nervous system
  252. What is the cerebral cortex?
    surface of grey matter of the brain
  253. Where is the cerebral cortex grey matter thinnest? thickest?
    • bottom of sulcus
    • top of gyrus
  254. What type of neurons do functional units of the cerebral cortex have?
    • afferent neurons
    • efferent neurons
    • interneuron neurons
  255. Are functional units of cerebral cortex isolated or linked to others?
    • they can exist both ways
    • linked by horizontal granular cells
  256. What type of Golgi cell are pyramidal cells?
    Golgi type I
  257. What cells form the main efferent output of the cerebral cortex?
    pyramidal cells
  258. What are Betz cells?
    • the largest of any type of pyramidal cell
    • found in the motor cortex
  259. What are some attributes of the pyramidal cells?
    • receive a single dendrite from superficial molecular layer of cortex
    • receive many dendrites from neighboring neurons
    • dendrites are highly spined
  260. Where can axons of pyramidal cells travel to?
    • terminate deep in cortex
    • leave cortex in white matter of cerebrum
  261. Which general direction in cortex has larger pyramidal cells
    deeper in the cortex
  262. What type of Golgi neuron are stellate (granule) cells?
    Golgi type II
  263. What do stellate (granule) cells look like?
    short axons and many dendrites
  264. What is the function of stellate (granule) cells?
    • act as interneurons
    • excitatory or inhibitory
  265. What is the inhibitory function of stellate (granule) cells?
    they refine or focus actions
  266. Where are horizontal cells (of Cajal) located?
    in superficial cortex
  267. What is the function of horizontal cells (of Cajal)?
    interneurons running parallel to cortex surface
  268. What do cells of Martinotti travel toward?
    superficial cortex
  269. What is the function of cells of Martinotti?
  270. What is the function of chandelier cells?
  271. Where are cell bodies of afferent neurons in the cortex located?
    • not in the cortex unless coming from association axon of pyramidal cell
    • come from cell bodies located elsewhere
  272. How are radial fibers oriented in the cortex?
    • perpendicular to cortex
    • they enter and exit cortex
    • they are from pyramidal cell axons
  273. How are tangential fibers oriented in the cortex?
    • parallel to the cerebral cortex
    • examples are bands of Baillarger in IV and V
  274. What are bands of Baillarger?
    • very thick centers of striated cortex fibers in the visual cortex
    • they form the stria of Gennari (striate cortex)
  275. What band of cortex are thicker in sensory cortex areas?
    bands IV and V because of larger amount of sensory fibers
  276. What does homotypical cortex mean?
    area of cortex with six distinct layers
  277. What are the six homotypical layers of cortex?
    • Molecular layer
    • External granular layer
    • External pyramidal layer
    • Internal granular layer
    • Ganglionic layer
    • Multiform layer
  278. What type of fibers mostly make up the Molecular layer of cortex?
    • tangential fibers
    • (pyramidal dendrites, stellate and Martinotti axons, horizontal cells)
  279. What layer of cortex is most superficial?
    Molecular layer
  280. How many sunapses occur in the Molecular layer of cortex?
    • many
    • a lot
    • don't bother counting...
  281. What makes up the External granular layer of cortex?
    • stellate cell bodies
    • pyramidal cell bodies
  282. What makes stellate cells so special?
    they are the primary interneurons of the cerebral cortex
  283. What makes up the External pyramidal layer of cortex?
    pyramidal cell bodies
  284. What makes up the Internal granular layer of cortex?
    • more stellate cell bodies
    • band of Baillarger
  285. What is the orientation of outer band of Baillarger fibers?
    tangentially oriented (mainly efferent)
  286. What makes up the Ganglionic layer of cortex?
    • larger pyramidal cell bodies
    • stellate cells
    • cells of Martinotti
    • Betz cells
    • inner band of Baillarger
  287. What makes up the Multiform layer of cortex?
    • pyramid cells projecting downward
    • cells of MArtinotti
    • many axons leaving and entering the cortex
  288. What does Heterotypical cortex mean?
    • parts of cortex without obvious 6 layers of organization
    • makes up 10% of cortex
  289. What two types of heterotypical cortex are there?
    • Granular
    • Agranular
  290. What is distinct about the granular type of heterotypical cortex?
    • layers II (external granular) and IV (internal granular) are well developed
    • pyramidal layers are not well developed
  291. What type of function do granular type cortex areas perform?
    receiving information (i.e. vision, hearing, taste, etc.)
  292. Where are granular type cortex areas found?
    • postcentral gyrus
    • superior temporal gyrus
    • parahippocampal gyrus
  293. What type of fibers project to the cells of granular type cortex layers?
    Thalamocortical fibers
  294. What makes up agranular type of heterotypical cortex?
    • well developed pyramidal layers (Ganglionic layer and external pyramidal layer)
    • poor developed granular layers
  295. Where is agranular type cortex found?
    • precentral gyrus
    • all other motor function areas of frontal lobe
  296. Are cerebellar cortex layers the same as cerebral cortex?
    • no, there are only three layers in typical cerebellar cortex, and they are different from the heterotypical layers of cerebral cortex
    • they are likely heterotypical
    • they are likely motor
  297. What hemisphere of the brain is dominant at birth?
    neither, they are identical at birth
  298. By what age does one hemisphere fully develop to being dominant
    age 5-7
  299. What percent of people are left hemisphere dominant?
  300. What is the relationship between handedness and brain dominance?
    they are contralateral (right handed = left brain dominant)
  301. What cells does the dominant part of the brain have more of?
    pyramidal neurons
  302. Where do pyramidal cells from dominant hemisphere of brain decussate to innervate the dominant hand?
    medulla oblongata
  303. Where is perception of language and speech located? (dominant or non-dominant hemisphere)
    • dominant hemisphere
    • damage to same parts of non-dominant side would not cause speech problems
  304. Where is spatial perception located ( dominant or non-dominant hemisphere)?
  305. Where is face recognition located (dominant or non-dominant hemisphere)?
  306. Where is music understanding located (dominant or non-dominant hemisphere)?
  307. What type of cortex makes up the primary somatic sensory area?
    granular heterotypical cortex
  308. What is the orientation of the homunculus on the primary somatic sensory area?
    inverted except for the face (i.e. feet are superior to hands, but eyes are superior to mouth
  309. What region of body has ipsilateral connections to the homunculus?
    oral region
  310. What parts of the body have contralateral connections to the homunculus?
    most parts with a few exceptions (know the exceptions)
  311. What parts of the body have bilateral connections with the homunculus?
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • perineum (chode, taint, or whatever)
  312. Where does main afferent input to the primary somatic sensory area come from?
    thalamus, specifically from posterior area
  313. What other parts of the cerebrum does the primary somatic sensory area connect with?
    • primary motor cortex
    • commissural inputs for cross-talk between hemispheres
  314. Where do the main efferent axons from the primary somatic sensory area travel?
    higher order sensory cortices (i.e. spinal cord)
  315. Where is the secondary somatosensory area located?
    on the medial surface of the insula lobe
  316. What does the secondary somatosensory area mostly deal with?
    • pain
    • tactile discrimination
  317. What is the function of the somatic sensory association area?
    • integrates all manner of sensory information
    • stereognosis
    • reaching of contralateral arm under visual guidance
  318. What is stereognosis?
    • discrimination without vision
    • recognition of something without seeing it by its shape, texture, touch, etc.
  319. Where is the Primary Visual area located?
    along the walls of the calcarine sulcus of the occipital lobe
  320. What kind of cortex is the primary visual area made of?
    granular heterotypical
  321. What Broadman's area number is the primary visual area?
  322. Where does afferent input to the primary visual area come from?
    Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the Thalamus via optic radiations
  323. What do the optic radiations pass through to get to the primary visual area?
    parietal lobe and temporal lobe
  324. Explain ipsilateral and contralateral input to the primary visual area.
    • temporal visual field is ipsilateral
    • nasal visual field is contralateral
  325. Where does the inferior visual field go to in the primary visual area? superior visual field?
    • superior calcarine sulcus wall
    • inferior calcarine sulcus wall
  326. How much of the primary visual cortex is taken up by the Macula lutea?
    • 1/3
    • we see very little, but we need more detail
  327. What are the Broadman's area numbers for the secondary visual area?
    18 and 19
  328. What does the secondary visual area receive afferent fibers from?
    • primary visual area
    • pulvinar of the thalamus
  329. What is the function of the pulvinar?
    discerning what is visually important through movement or object recognition
  330. What is the function of the secondary visual area?
    relating visual information to visual memory, in other words, recognition
  331. How does the MT region relate to vision?
    • it is a higher level cortical area
    • involved with spatial/ visual areas
    • helps with overall visual experience
  332. How is V4 area of temporal lobe related to vision?
    • involved with shape/ color perception
    • object recognition (especially face recognition)
  333. Where is the primary auditory area located?
    superior temporal gyrus
  334. What type of cortex makes up the primary auditory area?
    granular heterotypical cortex
  335. How is the primary auditory area organized?
    • isofrequency stripes
    • posterior stripes are for higher frequencies
  336. Where do afferent fibers to the primary auditory area come from?
    medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
  337. What is the pathway of auditory sensation?
    • organ of Corti
    • cochlear nucleus
    • brainstem
    • inferior colliculus of midbrain
    • medial geniculate nucleus (MGN)
    • primary auditory cortex
  338. What is the connection of ears to brain? (ipsilateral, bilateral, or contralateral)
  339. Where is the secondary auditory area located?
    superior temporal gyrus and lateral sulcus
  340. Where does the secondary auditory area receive fibers from?
    • afferent fibers from primary auditory area
    • thalamus
  341. What is function of the secondary auditory area?
    • interpret sounds
    • associate sounds with other senses
    • especially correlates sound and eye movement
  342. Where is the primary motor area located?
    • precentral gyrus
    • paracentral lobule (on medial side of cerebrum)
  343. What type of cortex makes up the primary motor area?
    agranular heterotypical cortex
  344. What does cortiospinal mean?
    neural fibers that travel from cortex to the spine
  345. What does corticobulbar mean?
    neural fibers that travel from cortex to nuclei of brainstem
  346. Where do fibers travel to from the primary motor area?
    • corticospinal (to spine)
    • corticobulbar (to nuclei of midbrain)
  347. Where does afferent information of the primary motor area come from?
    • sensory cortex
    • commissural fibers (from other primary motor cortex)
    • cerebellum
    • premotor cortex
    • thalamus
    • basal nuclei
  348. What muscles get innervated by the primary motor area?
    • mostly contralateral muscles
    • some bilateral muscles
  349. What muscles receive bilateral innervation from primary motor area?
    • extraocular
    • tongue
    • mandible
    • upper face
    • larynx
    • pharynx
  350. Where is the secondary motor area located?
    • anterior precentral gyrus
    • posterior portions of:
    • superior frontal gyrus
    • middle ""
    • inferior ""
  351. The secondary motor area is how many times larger than the primary motor area?
    six times
  352. What is the function of the secondary motor area?
    controls motor activity patterns
  353. Where is the supplementary motor area located?
    medial surface of the middle frontal gyrus
  354. What is the function of the supplementary motor area?
    • motor planning from internal cues and preprogrammed motor movements
    • "General of motor cortices if primary motor cortex is foot soldier"
  355. What are th association cortical areas?
    • Prefrontal cortex
    • Anterior temporal cortex
    • Posterior parietal cortex
  356. What is the function of the prefrontal cortex?
    • determines personality
    • feelings
    • initiative
    • judgement
  357. Where is the prefrontal cortex located?
    • covers most of superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri
    • orbital gyri
    • anterior cingulat gyrus
  358. What other parts of the brain does the prefrontal cortex have afferent and efferent connections with?
    • cerebral cortex
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • corpus striatum
  359. What is the function of the anterior temporal cortex?
    • stores sensory experiences
    • recall of objects seen and music heard
  360. What is the function of the posterior parietal cortex?
    • proprioception
    • stereognosis
  361. What are the names of cortical eye fields? (6)
    • Frontal eye field
    • Occipital ""
    • Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC)
    • Cingulate cortex
    • Supplementary eye field
    • Broadman's area 22
  362. Where are the frontal eye fields located?
    • precentral gyrus
    • middle frontal gyrus
  363. What other eye fields are the frontal eye fields connected to?
    • occipital
    • superior colliculus
  364. What is the function of the frontal eye fields?
    voluntary scanning eye movements
  365. What is the function of the occipital eye fields?
    relexative eye movements when following a moving stimulus
  366. What are the occipital eye fields connected to?
    • contralateral occiptal eye field
    • superior colliculus
    • frontal eye fields
  367. What is the function of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC)?
    • voluntary suppression of reflex eye movements
    • planning voluntary eye movements
  368. What is the function of the cingulate cortex in eye fields?
    • assess valence of visual targets
    • decision making of what is important or noticeable
  369. What is the function of the supplementary eye field?
    planning of saccades, especially multiple ones
  370. What is the function of Broadman's area 22?
    reflex saccades in response to sounds
  371. Where is Broadman's area 22 located?
    superior temporal gyrus
  372. What is the function of the Wernicke-Broca locus?
    understanding of language and ability to express language
  373. Where is sensory speech area of Wernicke located?
    superior temporal gyrus of dominant hemisphere
  374. What is the function of the sensory speech area of Wernicke?
    understanding of written and spoken language
  375. What brain structures does Wernicke's area receive afferent fibers from?
    • primary visual cortex
    • primary auditory cortex
  376. Where does Wernicke's area send efferent fibers?
    Broca's area
  377. What does a complete injury to Wernicke's area cause?
    receptive aphasia (inability to understand spoken word)
  378. What does injury to the angular gyrus cause? (next to Wernicke's area)
    • alexia (inability to read)
    • agraphia (inability to write)
  379. Where is the motor speech area of Broca located?
    inferior frontal gyrus of dominant hemisphere
  380. What is the function of motor speech area of Broca?
    control of muscular movements involved in speech
  381. What does an injury to Broca's area cause?
    expressive aphasia (inability to produce speech)
  382. What does an injury to the entire Wernicke-Broca locus cause?
    global aphasia (inability to do anything with language)
  383. Where is the taste cortical area located?
    inferior portion of the postcentral gyrus, along wall of lateral sulcus, and adjoining the insula
  384. Where is the vestibular cortical area located?
    facial area of postcentral gyrus
  385. What is the tuber cinereuma?
    a gray-matter protuberance on the inferior diencephalon that becomes the infundibulum
  386. What defines the lateral surface of the diencephalon?
    internal capsule
  387. What is the function of the thalamus?
    relay for all sensory systems except olfaction
  388. What divides the thalamus' internal structures?
    • internal medullary lamina
    • it also carries white matter fibers that connect the different thalamic nuclei
  389. What is the function of the anterior-superior division of the thalamus?
    • contains thalamic nuclei
    • receive mammilothalamic tract
    • project to the cingulate gyrus
    • this is the Papez circuit part
  390. What is the function of hte medial-posterior division of the thalamus?
    • integration of somatic, olfactory, and visceral information
    • relates emotions of these senses
  391. What is the function of the lateral-posterior division of the thalamus?
    houses a number of nuclei (ventral and dorsal)
  392. What are the functions of the ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei of the thalamus?
    receive information dealing with motor activity
  393. What is the function of the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus?
    • the ventral posterior lateral nucleus receives information from the spinal cord, and projects info to the superior part of primary somatosensory cortex
    • the ventral posterior medial nucleus receives sensory info from head, and projects info to inferior part of primary somatosensory cortex
  394. What is the pulvinar a piece of and what is its function?
    • part of the posterior dorsal thalamus
    • involved in visual attention (because it is so close to the LGN...)
  395. What is the function of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)?
    • optic trac fibers enter here to synapse
    • optic radiations leave here to travel to occipital lobe
    • it is made up of 6 concentrically arranged layers of cortex
  396. What is the function of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN)?
    • receives auditory information from both ears (mainly contralateral)
    • projects to auditory cortex via auditory radiations
  397. What does subthalamus do?
    • it is very complicated
    • connected to red nucleus, substantia nigra, and corpus striatum
  398. What structures are located in the epithalamus?
    • habenular nucleus
    • hagenular commissure
    • pineal gland
  399. What is the function of the habenular nucleus?
    center for olfactory, visceral, and somatic afferent integration
  400. What is the function of the habenular commissure?
    decussate fibers from thalamus to go to contralateral habenular nucleus
  401. What is the function of the pineal gland?
    endocrine gland that influences the entire endocrine system
  402. What structure connects the pineal gland to the rest of the diencephalon?
    • pineal stalk
    • this contains habenular and posterior commissures
  403. What are pinealocytes?
    • endocrine cells of the pineal gland that secrete inhibitory substances
    • melatonin is good example hormone
  404. How does the pineal gland affect the retina?
    • they are connected through the LGN of the thalamus
    • dark and light cycles affect amount of substances secreted
  405. What type of matter makes up the hypothalamus' nuclei?
    gray matter
  406. How does the hypothalamus communicate with other parts of body?
    • nerves
    • bloodstream
    • CSF
  407. Where does the hypothalamus receive information from?
    pretty much everywhere in order to maintain homeostasis
  408. What type of nerve output does the hypthalamus have?
    efferent, but not classified as pre- or postganglionic because they stay within the CNS
  409. How is the hypothalamus connected to the pituitary gland?
    • nervous connections (infundibulum)
    • blood connections (hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system)
  410. What is Diabetes Insipidus?
    • caused by a lesion in the hypothalamus
    • causes a hormonal imbalance which leads to increased urniation = increased water intake
    • has NOTHING to do with blood sugar!
  411. Which colliculi of the corpora quadragemini deal with visual reflexes?
    superior colliculi
  412. Which colliculi of the corpora quadragemini deal with hearing?
    inferior colliculi
  413. What is the function of the superior brachium of the midbrain?
    • part of the lateral surface of the midbrain
    • connects superior colliculi with lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and optic tract
  414. What is the function of the inferior brachium of the midbrain?
    connects inferior colliculi with medial geniculate nucleus (MGN)
  415. The posterior perforated substance is located where?
    anterior portion of midbrain
  416. What is the tectum of the midbrain?
    • internal, most posterior portion of midbrain
    • contains corpora quadrigemina and pretectal nuclei
    • located poserior to cerebral aquaduct
  417. What surrounds the cerebral aqueduct?
    periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain
  418. What divides the tegmentum from the crus cerebri?
    substantia nigra
  419. What is the function of the red nucleus?
    • controlling movement
    • receives afferents from cerebral cortex, cerebellum, lentiform nucleus, substantia nigra, and spinal cord
    • rubrospinal tract connects red nucleus to the spinal cord
  420. What is the function of the crus cerebri?
    connects cerebral cortex with the spinal cord, pons, cerebellum, and cranial nerve nuclei
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SCO Neuroanatomy