Musculoskeletal System

  1. Includes bones, muscles, and joints of the body
    Musculoskeletal System
  2. Structural support and framework around which body is constructed; provides protection of internal organs
  3. Attached to bones or internal organs; responsible for internal and external movement
  4. MD, bones, bone disease (orth/o = straight; ped/o = child)
  5. MD, joints (rheumat/o = watery flow… referring to collection of fluid im joint spaces)
  6. DO, body able to heal itself with proper nutrition and bone alignment
    Osteopathic physician
  7. Physical manipulation of the spinal column to relieve pressure on nerves
  8. Organs composed or osseous tissue and rich supply of blood vessels and nerves
    (Osseous tissue contains osteocytes, collagen and calcium salts)
  9. Produce immature bony tissues that replaces cartilage
  10. Nourishes and maintains bone
  11. Reabsorb or digest bone (remodels bone); also called bone phagocytes
  12. Soft, flexible, lacking calcium deposits, precedes osseous bones in embryos.
    Cartilaginous tissue (found in nose, ear, ribs)
  13. Replacement of cartilage
    with bone
  14. Work together to deposit and tear down bone throughout life.

    ˜Osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  15. A reservoir for calcium needed for nerve function and muscle function.˜
    The skeleton
  16. Proper formation of bone depends on
    Sources of calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin D are needed for the formation of ___________. (needed to transportcalcium from intestines into blood stream). ˜
  17. Helps create hardbone from calcium, phosphorus, and Vitamin D
    Calcium Phosphate Enzyme
  18. Calcium level is maintained in blood by _____________
    Parathyroid gland, which secretes a hormone to release calcium from bone
  19. ____ bones in human body:
  20. ˜4 types of Bone
    • 1. Long
    • 2. Short
    • 3. Flat
    • 4. Sesamoid
  21. What bone has strong, broad ends to join other bones, large surfaces for muscle attachment
    Long bones (Found in thigh, lower leg, upper & lower arms)
  22. Bone found in wrist and ankle, irregular shape
    Short Bone
  23. Found covering soft body parts, shoulder blades, pelvic bones, ribs
    Flat Bone
  24. Bone found near joints to increase muscle efficiency; rounded bones, patella ˜
    Sesamoid Bones
  25. Shaft˜ of Bone
  26. End of Bone ˜
  27. Part of bone that is cone-like flared portion between end and shaft˜.
  28. The growth plate where cartilage replaced by bone for bone growth (in length)
    Epiphyseal line or plate
  29. Strong, vascular membrane that covers bone, except epiphysis
  30. Ends of bones covered by _______ _______ in the joint: cushions joint and allows it to move smoothly
    articular cartilage
  31. Layer of hard, dense bone under periosteum; contains haversian systems for blood vessels, nerves, and yellow bone marrow (mostly fat)˜
    ˜Compact Bone
  32. Porous, less dense bone with spaces that contain red bone marrow for blood formation
    Cancellous (Spongy/trabecular bone)
  33. Bone marrow that is chiefly fat cells
    ˜Yellow marrow
  34. Bone marrow that is rich with blood vessels and immature and mature blood cells in various stages of development; in later life replaced with yellow marrow.
    Ribs, pelvic bone, sternum,vertebrae, epiphyses of long bones contain red bone marrow
    Red marrow
  35. Enlarged areas of bone that extend out to serve as attachments for
    muscles and tendons

    Depressions: openings or hollow
    regions help join bones or serve as
    passageways for nerves and/or vessels

    fossa-shallow cavity

    for blood vessels and nerves

    fissure-narrow, slit-like

    cavity within bone
    • ˜Bone Processes
    • (examples are Xiphoid process, spinous process, tuberosities)
  36. Openings or hollow regions help join bones or serve as passageways for nerves and/or vessels
    ˜Bone Depressions
  37. A shallow cavity
  38. An opening for blood vessels and nerves
  39. A narrow, deep, slit-like opening
  40. A hollow cavity within a bone
  41. Bone that forms forehead and top of eye sockets
    Frontal bone
  42. Bones that form roof and upper sides of cranium˜
    Parietal bones (2)
  43. Bones on the lower sides and base of cranium
    Temporal bones (2)
  44. Bone that forms back and base of skull
    ˜Occipital bone
  45. Area or passage where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
  46. The opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes through
    Foramen Magnum
  47. A Bat shaped bone that extends behind the eyes and forms part of the base of the skull. It joins the frontal, occipital, & ethmoid.
    Sphenoid bone
  48. A depression in the sphenoid bone in which the pituitary gland is located. (meaning Turkish saddle)
    Sella Turcica
  49. Thin, delicate bone that supports/forms the nasal cavity and lower eye sockets
    ˜Ethmoid bone
  50. Bridge of nose
    ˜Nasal bones
  51. The two small, thin bones located at the corner of each eye. Contain fossa for tear glands.˜
    ˜Lacrimal bones
  52. Two large bones that compose the massive upper jawbones (maxillae). (Associated with cleft palate)
    Maxillary bones
  53. Lower jaw bone; joins temporal bone
    ˜Mandibular bones
  54. Cheekbones ˜
    ˜Zygomatic bones
  55. The thin, single, flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum˜
  56. Process behind ear
    Mastoid Process
  57. Process that anchors the tongue
    Styloid process
  58. _________ foramen opening
    in mandible for blood vessels and nerves
    Mental foramen
  59. Air cavities located in facial and cranial bones.
    They lighten the skull and warm and moisten the air as it passes into the respiratory system.
  60. Clavicle
    Scapula - acromiun
    Sternum - xiphoid process
    Ribs - costal cartilage btwn sternum & rib bone
    1-7, true ribs
    8-10, false ribs
    11-12, floating ribs
    Bones of the Thorax
  61. Humerus - upper arm bone
    Ulna - olecranon (elbow)
    Radius - bone on your thumb side
    Carpals - 8 wrist bones
    Metacarpals - 5 palm bones
    Phalanges - finger bones
    Extremities (Arm and Hand)
  62. Pelvic girdle - supports trunk of body, articulates w/femur to form hip
    Ischium - buttock muscle (bones you sit on)
    Pubis - forms pelvic cavity
    Bones of the Pelvis
  63. The shin bone, medial malleolus…inside ankle
  64. The lateral malleolus…outside ankle
  65. _______ = 7 bones, hindfoot
    =Calcaneus - heel bone
    =Talus…an ankle bone

  66. 5 bones in the midfoot
  67. Malignant bone tumor involving medullary cavity, common in childhood
    ˜Ewing sarcoma
  68. Bony growth on surface of bone (bunion)˜
  69. Malignant tumor arising from bone osteoblast
    Osteogenic sarcoma
  70. Softening of bone due to lack of calcium, phosphorus (rickets…bowed legs)˜
  71. Inflammation secondary to infection˜
  72. Congenital abnormality of hindfoot involving the talus (clubfoot)
  73. Traumatic breaking of bone
  74. Broken bone protruding thru open wound
    Open/Compound fracture
  75. Broken bone, but no open skin wound
    Closed fracture
  76. Caused by diseased bone from tumor or infection
    Pathologic fracture
  77. Treatment to restore bone to normal position
  78. Used to immobilize injured bone until healed
  79. Decrease in bone density, weakening of bone, (a thinning and wide separation of trabeculae)
  80. _______ is a coming together or articulation of two or more bones
    • ˜Joint
    • 3 types:
    • Immovable: suture joints(skull)
    • Partially movable: between vertebrae
    • Freely movable: synovial joints (ball and socket types, e.g. hip or shoulder), (hinge type, e.g., elbow, knee, ankle)
  81. Bones in a synovial joint are surrounded by a ______ _______ composed of fibrous tissue.

    ˜Joint capsule
  82. Lies under the joint capsule and lines the synovial cavity b/t the bones and it's filled with synovial fluid
    Synovial membrane
  83. _______ _______ is filled with a special lubricating fluid produced by the ________ __________. The fluid contains water and nutrients that nourish as well as lubricate the joints so that friction on the articular cartilage is minimal.
    • Synovial cavity
    • Synovial membrane
  84. Connective tissue that binds muscles to bones.
  85. Connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint.
  86. Smooth, glistening white tissue that covers the surface of a joint.
    (bones are covered by it)
    Articular cartilage
  87. Closed sacks of synovial fluid with a synovial membrane located near, but not within a joint. Promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another. *ex: are elbow, knee, shoulder joints
    Bursa (plural: Bursae)
  88. Inflammation of joints (painful)
  89. Inflammation due to excessive uric acid in body; crystals destroy articular cartilage and synovial membrane; treat by reducing red meat, red wine & cheese intake.
    Gouty arthritis
  90. Loss of articular cartilage and formation of bone spurs at articular surfaces. (aka degenerative joint disease) treat with aspirin, physical therapy, joint replacement
    Osteoarthritis (OA)
  91. Autoimmune reaction against joint tissues (against synovial membrane)
    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
  92. Swelling of medial aspect of joint between big toe and first metatarsal bone.
  93. Compression of median nerve as it passes between ligament and bones and tendons of the wrist.˜
    Carpal tunnel syndrome
  94. Displacement of bone from a joint˜
  95. Trauma to joint without rupture, an injury to ligaments, causes pain and swelling. To relieve symptoms apply ice and elevate the joint.
  96. An injury involving the over stretching of muscle
  97. Group of inherited diseases with progressive muscle weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without nervous system involvement
    Muscular dystrophy
  98. Loss of bone due to osteoporosis leading to increased posterior curvature of thoracic region of the spine (humpback)
  99. Increased anterior curvature of lumbar region of spine (swayback)
  100. Three types of muscles
    • Striated
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
  101. Muscle under voluntary control—they move all the bones as well as face and eyes, over 600˜
    ˜Striated muscle
  102. Control is involuntary—they move internal organs (digestive tract, blood vessels, ducts of glands)˜
  103. Not consciously controlled and found exclusively in the heart
  104. Point of attachment of the muscle to the stationary bone. (beginning of that muscle)
  105. Point of junction of the muscle to the bone that moves.
Card Set
Musculoskeletal System
Musculoskeletal Vocabulary