Volume 3 Chapter 6

  1. GI Emergency Statistics
    • 500,000 emergency room visits/year
    • 5% of all ER visits
    • 300,000 are GI bleeds
  2. GI Disease Risk Factors
    • Excessive Alcohol Consumption
    • Excessive Smoking
    • Increased Stress
    • Ingestion of Caustic Substances
    • Poor Bowel Habits
  3. Visceral Pain
    Dull, poorly localized pain originating in the walls of hollow organs.
  4. Somatic Pain
    Sharp, localized pain originating in the walls of body such as skeletal muscles.
  5. Referred Pain
    Pain originating in a region other than where it is felt.
  6. Referred Pain Patterns
    • Liver: Right shoulder
    • Gallbladder: Right at diaphragm, Right mid back
    • Pancreas, Duodenum: Right, at diaphragm.
    • Small Intestine: Umbilicus
    • Appendicitis: McBurney's Point, Right pelvis.
    • Colon: Pubis
  7. Peritonitis
    Inflammation of peritoneum which lines abdominal cavity.
  8. Cullen's Sign
    Ecchymosis in the periumbilical area
  9. Grey Turner's Sign
    Ecchymosis in flanks
  10. GI System
    • GI Tract
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
    • Appendix
  11. Upper GI Tract
    • Mouth
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Duodenum
  12. Upper GI Bleeding
    Bleeding within GI tract superior to the ligament of Treitz
  13. Ligament of Treitz
    Ligament that supports the Duodenojejunal junction
  14. Major Causes of Upper GI Bleed
    • Peptic ulcer disease
    • Gastritis
    • Esophageal varix rupture
    • Mallory-Weiss tear
    • Esophagitis
    • Duodenitis
  15. Mallory-Weiss Tear
    Esophageal laceration, usually secondary to vomitting
  16. Hematemisis
    Bloody vomitus
  17. Melena
    Dark, tarry, foul-smelling stool indicating presence of partially digested blood
  18. Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube
    Three-lumen tube used in treating esophageal bleeding
  19. Upper GI Diseases
    • Esophageal varices
    • Acute gastroenteritis
    • Chronic gastroenteritis
    • Peptic ulcers
  20. Esophageal Varix
    Swollen vein of esophagus
  21. Portal
    Pertaining the the flow of blood in liver
  22. Cirrhosis
    Degenerative disease of liver
  23. Acute Gastroenteritis
    Sudden onset of inflammation of the stomach and intestines
  24. Hematochezia
    Bright red blood in stool
  25. Chronic Gastroenteritis
    Nonacute inflammation of GI mucosa
  26. Peptic Ulcer
    Erosion caused by gastric acid
  27. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
    Condition that causes the stomach the excrete excessive amounts of hydrochloric acid and pepsin
  28. Lower GI Tract
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
    • Large intestine
    • Rectum
    • Anus
  29. Lower GI Bleeding
    Bleeding inferior to the ligament of Treitz
  30. Major Causes of Lower GI Bleeding
    • Diverticulosis
    • Colon lesions
    • Rectal lesions
    • Inflammatory bowel disorder
  31. Lower GI Diseases
    • Ulcerative colitis
    • Crohn's disease
    • Diverticulitis
    • Hemorrhoids
    • Bowel obstruction
  32. Pancolitis
    Ulcerative colitis spread throughout the whole color
  33. Proctitis
    Ulcerative colitis limited to the rectum
  34. Colic
    Acute pain associated with cramping or spasms in the abdominal organs
  35. Crohn's Disease
    Idipathic inflammatory bowel disorder associated with small intestine
  36. Diverticulitis
    Inflammation of diverticula
  37. Diverticulosis
    Prescence of diverticula with or without associated bleeding
  38. Diverticula
    Small outpouchings in the mucosal lining of the intestinal tract
  39. Hemmorhoid
    Small mass of swollen veins in the anus or rectum
  40. Bowel Obstruction
    Blockage of the hollow space within intestines
  41. Hernia
    Protrusion of an organ through its protective lining
  42. Intussusception
    Condition that occurs when part of an intestine slips into the part just distal to itself
  43. Volvulus
    Twisting of the intestine
  44. Adhesion
    Union of normally separate tissue surfaces by a fibrous band of new tissue
  45. Infarction
    Area of dead tissue caused by lack of blood
  46. Accessory Organ Diseases
    • Appendicitis
    • Cholecystitis
    • Pancreatitis
    • Hepatitis
  47. Appendicitis
    Inflammation of the vermiform appendix at the juncture of the large and small intestines
  48. McBurney Point
    Common site of pain for appendicitis. 1-2 inches above the anterior iliac crest in a direct line with umbilicus
  49. Murphy's Sign
    Pain caused when an inflamed gallbladder is palpated by pressing under the right costal margin
  50. Causes of Acute Pancreatitis
    • Alcohol Abuse
    • Gallstones
    • Elevated serum lipids
    • Drug induced
  51. Mild Pancreatitis S/S
    • Epigastric pain
    • Abdominal distention
    • N/V
    • Elevated amylase/lipase
  52. Severe Pancreatitis S/S
    • Refractory hypotensive shock
    • Blood loss
    • Respiratory failure
Card Set
Volume 3 Chapter 6
Volume 3 Chapter 6