Chemical substance released by a gland that controls or effects processes in other glands and systems
Gland that secretes chemical substances directly into the blood
Gland that secretes chemical substances to nearby tissues through a duct
The natural tendency of the body to keep the internal environment and metabolism steady and normal
Sum of cellular processed that produce energy and molecules needed for growth and repair
Autonomic Nervous System
Part of nervous system responsible for controlling involuntary body functions
Located in cerebrum of brain. Junction of nervous and endocrine systems. Sends hormones to pituitary and the body.
Size of a pea. Posterior and anterior.
Responds to nerve impulses from the hypothalmus. Produces Antidiretic Hormone (ADH) which causes water retention. Oxytocin which causes uterine contraction and lactation.
- Respondes to hormonal stimulation from hypothalmus.
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): targets the adrenal cortexes
- Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH): targets thyroid
- Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH): targets gonads and sex organs
- Luteneizing hormone (LH): targets gonads
- Prolactin (PRL): Targets the mammary glands of women
- Growth hormone (GH): Targets almost all body cells
- Two lobes located in neck anterior to and just below cartilage of larynx.
- Thyroxine (T4): stimulates cell metabolism
- Triiodothyronine (T3): Stimulates cell metabolism
- Calcitonin: Lowers blood calcium levels
- Four very small glands located on posterior surface of thyroid.
- Parathyroid hormone (PTH): Increased blood calcium levels
- Located in the mediastinum just behind sternum.
- Thymosin: Promotes maturation of T lymphocytes during childhood
- Located in upper retroperitoneum behind stomac between duodenum and spleen. Endocrine and exocrine. Has islets of Langerhans. Alpha (glucagon), beta (insulin) and delta (somatostatin) cells each produce different hormones.
- Glucagon: increases BGL
- Insulin: decreases BGL
- Somatostatin: Inhibits release of glucagon and insulin
Breakdown of glycogen to glucose, primarily in liver cells.
Conversion of protein and fat into glucose
- Located on top of kidneys. Inner portion called adrenal medulla.
- Epinepherine: sympathetic hormone
- Norepinehperine: sympathetic hormone
- Outer portion called adrenal cortex
- Glucocoticoids (cortisol): also caused increase in BGL
- Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone): controls salt/fluid balance. Regulates sodium and potassium in kidneys.
- Androgenic hormones: same function as those secreted by gonads
- Ovaries and testicles. Responsible for sexual maturation and any repoduction.
- Ovaries: Etrogen and progeterone. Regulated by LH and FSH secreted by Anterior pituitary
- Testes: Testosterone. Also regulated by LH and FSH.
- Located in the roof of the thalmus.
- Melatonin: responds to changes in light. Biological clock.
Disorder of inadequate insulin activity, due either to inadequte production of insulin or to decreased responsivenss of body cells to insulin
Constructive phase of metabolism
Destructive phase of metabolism.
Compounds produced during the catabolism of fatty acids.
Prescence of significant quantities of ketone bodies in blood.
Deficiency of blood glucose, sometimes called insulin shock
Increased urination and dehydration caused when high levels of glucose cannot be reabsorbed into the blood from kidney tubules.
Formation and secretion of large amounts of urine
Glucose in urine.
Symptomes of Untreated Type 1 diabetes
- Weight loss
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
Complication of type 1 diabetes due to decreased insulin intake. High BGL, metabolic acidosis and in advanced stages coma.
Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketonic (HHNK) Coma
Complication of Type 2 diabetes due to inadequate insulin activity. Marked by high BGL, marked dehydration, and decreased mental function.
Seizure that occurs when brain cells do not receive adequate glucose.
Excessive secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in increased metabolic rate.
Condition that reflects prolonged exposure to excess thyroid hormones with resultant changes in body structure and function.
Inadequte secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in decreased metabolic rate.
Condition that reflects long term hypothyroidism.
Edocrine disorder characterized by excess thyroid hormones resulting in body changes associated with increased metabolism.
Toxic condition characterized by hyperthermia, tachycardia, nervous symptoms and rapid metabolism.
Pathological condition resulting from excess adrenocortical hormones. Symptoms may include changed body habitus, hypertension, vulnerability to infection.
Endocrine disorder characterized by adrenocortical insufficiency. Symptoms may include weaknedd, fatigue, weight loss, hyperpigmentation of skin.
Form of shock associated with adrenocortical insuffiency and characterized by profound hypotension and electrolyte imbalances.